The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a single nasal allergen challenge (NAC) on levels of eotaxin and IL-8 and the inflammatory cells in upper and lower airways of allergic rhinitis (AR) patients. Twenty-four AR patients and 12 control subjects entered a sequential nasal placebo challenge and NAC study, out of the pollen season. Nasal lavage fluid (NLF) was obtained at baseline, 15 minutes, and 1, 5, and 24 hours postchallenge. Before and 24 hours after placebo/allergen challenge induced sputum was performed. NLF and induced sputum were evaluated for total cell count (TCC) and differential cell count and analyzed for concentrations of eotaxin and IL-8 using ELISA method. NAC in AR subjects was associated with significantly increased sputum (p = 0.008) and NLF (p < 0.001) eotaxin levels. Post-NAC IL-8 levels were significantly increased in NLF (p < 00001) but not in sputum (p = 0.080) of AR subjects. Increased eotaxin levels in NLF positively correlated with the increased TCC and eosinophils. Positive correlations were also found between NLF increased eotaxin level and sputum TCC, eosinophils, and macrophages. NAC is associated with the increased levels of eotaxin in lower airways of AR subjects. Allergen-induced secretion of eotaxin in nasal mucosa of AR subjects is involved in determining the cellular character of both upper and lower airway inflammation.