Eocene primates of South America and the African origins of New World monkeys

@article{Bond2015EocenePO,
  title={Eocene primates of South America and the African origins of New World monkeys},
  author={Mariano Bond and Marcelo Fabi{\'a}n Tejedor and Kenneth E. Campbell and Laura Chornogubsky and Nelson M. Novo and Francisco Javier Goin},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2015},
  volume={520},
  pages={538-541}
}
The platyrrhine primates, or New World monkeys, are immigrant mammals whose fossil record comes from Tertiary and Quaternary sediments of South America and the Caribbean Greater Antilles. The time and place of platyrrhine origins are some of the most controversial issues in primate palaeontology, although an African Palaeogene ancestry has been presumed by most primatologists. Until now, the oldest fossil records of New World monkeys have come from Salla, Bolivia, and date to approximately 26… 

Figures from this paper

First North American fossil monkey and early Miocene tropical biotic interchange
TLDR
Discovery of an early Miocene primate in Panama provides evidence for a circum-Caribbean tropical distribution of New World monkeys by this time, with ocean barriers not wholly restricting their northward movements, requiring a complex set of ecological factors to explain their absence in well-sampled similarly aged localities at higher latitudes of North America.
A parapithecid stem anthropoid of African origin in the Paleogene of South America
TLDR
Evidence is reported for a third mammalian lineage of African origin in the Paleogene of South America—a newly discovered genus and species of parapithecid anthropoid primate from Santa Rosa in Amazonian Perú and Bayesian clock–based phylogenetic analysis nests this genus (Ucayalipithecus) deep within the otherwise Afro-Arabian clade Parapithecoidea.
Platyrrhine Monkeys: The Fossil Evidence
  • T. Defler
  • Biology, Environmental Science
    Topics in Geobiology
  • 2018
TLDR
In this chapter I describe how primates might have (and probably did) arrived in South America and just what the conditions would have had to be for the success of such a precarious voyage.
An Early Oligocene age for the oldest known monkeys and rodents of South America
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the oldest known primates and rodents of South America are unlikely to be older than Early Oligocene in age and are not Eocene inAge as previously postulated, and that there are currently no compelling Eocene records of either rodents or primates in the known fossil record of SouthAmerica.
Early Arrival and Climatically-Linked Geographic Expansion of New World Monkeys from Tiny African Ancestors
TLDR
The results show that platyrrhines originated 5‐10 million years earlier than previously assumed, dating back to the Middle Eocene, and reveal the full evolutionary trajectory of an iconic and ecologically important radiation of monkeys.
New World monkey origins
TLDR
The oldest platyrrhine primate is identified at 36 million years ago, with features that suggest links to African anthropoids of similar age, and new fossils reinforce the African rafting source.
Evolutionary history of New World monkeys revealed by molecular and fossil data
TLDR
The results show that extant platyrrhines originated some 5–10 million years earlier than previously assumed, likely dating back to the Middle Eocene, and small-sized callitrichines (marmosets and tamarins) retained a small body mass throughout their evolutionary history, thus challenging the hypothesis of phyletic dwarfism as an explanation to their adaptive traits.
New Eocene primate from Myanmar shares dental characters with African Eocene crown anthropoids
TLDR
A new fossil Asian primate from the middle Eocene of Myanmar is described that possesses several dental characters found only among the African crown anthropoids and their nearest relatives, indicating that several of these characters have appeared within Asian clades before being recorded in Africa.
Rafting on a wide and wild ocean
TLDR
Fossils from Santa Rosa in Amazonian Perú provide evidence of a third mammalian lineage of African origin that briefly appeared in South America in the early Oligocene: a now-extinct parapithecid anthropoid monkey (genus: Ucayalipithecus).
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 29 REFERENCES
Late Middle Eocene primate from Myanmar and the initial anthropoid colonization of Africa
TLDR
A fossil primate from the late middle Eocene Pondaung Formation of Myanmar is described, Afrasia djijidae gen. et sp.
Late middle Eocene epoch of Libya yields earliest known radiation of African anthropoids
TLDR
The discovery of the oldest known diverse assemblage of African anthropoids from the late middle Eocene Dur At-Talah escarpment in central Libya indicates either a much longer interval of anthropoid evolution in Africa than is currently documented in the fossil record or the nearly synchronous colonization of Africa by multiple anthropoid clades at some time during themiddle Eocene epoch.
A fossil primate of uncertain affinities from the earliest late Eocene of Egypt
TLDR
It is suggested that Nosmips likely represents a highly specialized member of a previously undocumented, and presumably quite ancient, endemic African primate lineage, the subordinal affinities of which have been obscured by its striking dental autapomorphies.
Middle Eocene rodents from Peruvian Amazonia reveal the pattern and timing of caviomorph origins and biogeography
TLDR
The phylogenetic results reaffirm the African origin of South American rodents and support a trans-Atlantic dispersal of these mammals during Middle Eocene times, and further extends the gap between first appearances of rodents and primates in South America.
Early primate evolution in Afro‐Arabia
  • E. Seiffert
  • Geography, Environmental Science
    Evolutionary anthropology
  • 2012
TLDR
Newly discovered fossils indicate that the persistence and later diversification of Anthropoidea was not an inevitable result of the clade's competitive isolation or adaptive superiority, as has often been assumed, but rather was as much due to the combined influences of serendipitous geographic conditions, global cooling, and competition with a group of distantly related extinct strepsirrhines with anthropoid‐like adaptations known as adapiforms.
A morphological intermediate between eosimiiform and simiiform primates from the late middle Eocene of Tunisia: Macroevolutionary and paleobiogeographic implications of early anthropoids.
TLDR
These new data suggest that there must have been at least two Asian anthropoid colonizers of Africa: the afrotarsiids and the ancestor of Amamria, which could represent one of the earliest offshoots of the African simiiform radiation.
The Primate Fossil Record
TLDR
This book discusses the earliest fossil primates and the evolution of prosimians, the origin and diversification of anthropoid primates, and the hominoid radiation in Asia.
South American primates : comparative perspectives in the study of behavior, ecology, and conservation
TLDR
Comparative perspectives in the study of South American primates: research priorities and conservation imperatives are compared.
The Paleogene mammalian fauna of Santa Rosa, Amazonian Peru
Paleogene-grade notoungulates (order Notoungulata) from the Santa Rosa local fauna of eastern Peru are documented and described. The specimens include at least two species of toxodont notoungulates
...
...