Enzymes and inhibitors in neonicotinoid insecticide metabolism.

@article{Shi2009EnzymesAI,
  title={Enzymes and inhibitors in neonicotinoid insecticide metabolism.},
  author={Xueyan Shi and Ryan A Dick and Kevin A. Ford and John E. Casida},
  journal={Journal of agricultural and food chemistry},
  year={2009},
  volume={57 11},
  pages={4861-6}
}
Neonicotinoid insecticide metabolism involves considerable substrate specificity and regioselectivity of the relevant CYP450, aldehyde oxidase, and phase II enzymes. Human CYP450 recombinant enzymes carry out the following conversions: CYP3A4, 2C19, and 2B6 for thiamethoxam (TMX) to clothianidin (CLO); 3A4, 2C19, and 2A6 for CLO to desmethyl-CLO; 2C19 for TMX to desmethyl-TMX. Human liver aldehyde oxidase reduces the nitro substituent of CLO to nitroso much more rapidly than it does that of TMX… CONTINUE READING

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