Enzymatic hydrolysis of esterified diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins and pectenotoxins

  title={Enzymatic hydrolysis of esterified diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins and pectenotoxins},
  author={Erin Doucet and Neil N Ross and Michael A. Quilliam},
  journal={Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry},
Okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxins-1 and -2 (DTX1, DTX2), the toxins responsible for incidents of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), can occur as complex mixtures of ester derivatives in both plankton and shellfish. Alkaline hydrolysis is usually employed to release parent OA/DTX toxins, and analyses are conducted before and after hydrolysis to determine the concentrations of nonesterified and esterified toxins. Recent research has shown that other toxins, including pectenotoxins and… 

In vitro bioaccessibility of the marine biotoxins okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-2 and their 7-O-acyl fatty acid ester derivatives in raw and steamed shellfish.

Naturally contaminated shellfish samples: quantification of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins in unhydrolysed and hydrolysed extracts and cytotoxicity assessment

The quantification of DSP toxins in unhydrolysed and hydrolysed extracts of several cockle and mussel samples naturally contaminated and the evaluation of their cytotoxicity profiles in V79 cells are described.

In vitro bioaccessibility of the marine biotoxin okadaic acid in shellfish.

Isolation and characterization of an enzyme from the Greenshell™ mussel Perna canaliculus that hydrolyses pectenotoxins and esters of okadaic acid.

Accumulation and Biotransformation of Dinophysis Toxins by the Surf Clam Mesodesma donacium

Surf clams, Mesodesma donacium, were shown to accumulate toxins from Dinophysis acuminata blooms. Only pectenotoxin 2 (PTX2) and some of its derivatives were found, and no toxins from the okadaic

Discovery of gymnodimine fatty acid ester metabolites in shellfish using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

It is detected for the first time the presence of a range of acyl ester derivatives of GYMs in shellfish samples from the Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia, suggesting that these compounds must not be neglected when trying to understand the risks associated with GY Ms.

LC-MS/MS analysis of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins, okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin analogues, and other lipophilic toxins.

  • Toshiyuki SuzukiM. Quilliam
  • Chemistry
    Analytical sciences : the international journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
  • 2011
Electrospray ionization (ESI) liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a very powerful tool for the detection, identification and quantification of DSP and other lipophilic toxins.

Temperature and base requirements for the alkaline hydrolysis of okadaite's esters.

  • S. RodriguesP. Vale
  • Chemistry
    Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology
  • 2009



Biological Activities of Semisynthetic Analogs of Dinophysistoxin-3, the Major Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxin

The activities of okadaic acid were generally decreased by acylation of 7-OH, which was most significant in the mouse lethality, moderate in cytotoxicity, and only slight in the fluid accumulating potency in mouse intestinal loops.

Enteropathogenicity of Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins in Intestinal Models

It is concluded that DST shows enterotoxic activities in these animal models and that okadaic acid, DTX-1 andDTX-3 are diarrheagenic.

Analysis of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish tissue by liquid chromatography with fluorometric and mass spectrometric detection.

Improved methods based on liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry and fluorometric detection of anthryldiazomethane (ADAM) derivatives were improved upon to achieve a high degree of accuracy and precision for the determination of DSP toxins in a new mussel tissue reference material (MUS-2).

Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning by okadaic acid esters from Brown crabs (Cancer pagurus) in Norway.

Identification of fatty acid esters of pectenotoxin-2 seco acid in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) from Ireland.

The most abundant fatty acid esters in the fractionated sample were, in order, the 16:0, 22:6, 14: 0, 16:1, 18:4, and 20:5 fatty acids, although a wide array of other PTX-2 seco acid fatty acids were also present at low levels.

Discovery of okadaic acid esters in the toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuta from New Zealand using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

Using various liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry techniques, the first report identifying the presence of OA esters in Dinophysis species is identified.

Discovery of fatty acid ester metabolites of spirolide toxins in mussels from Norway using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

Analyses performed with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) have revealed a complex mixture of esters of 20-methyl spirolide G in the contaminated mussels.

Detection of new 7-O-acyl derivatives of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.