Mechanism of AMR: Mdr genes and antibiotics decoys retard the new antibiotic discovery against superbugs
- AK Chakraborty
- Nov Appro Drug Des Dev
The term enzibiotic was coined from two words, enzyme and antibiotic and usually refers as the bacteriophage enzymes that attack the cell wall of bacteria with lyses . However, enzybiotic present in bacteria, bacteria infected phages and in body fluids like tears, saliva and animal mucous . Antibiotics had used 80 years with success to eradicate pathogenic bacteria like Escherichia, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Mycobacterium, Pseudomonas and Vibrio species. However, last two decades gradual increase of clinical isolates had shown with >95% now ampicillin and amoxicillin resistant which was controlled by synthesis of new derivatives of penicillin like cephalosporin and carbapenem drugs . In 2009 NDM-1 Escherichia coli was found however, resistant to all class of penicillins including Beta-lactamase inhibitors like cavulinate and sulbactam but avibactam . Skin infections by MRSA Staphylococcus aureus, PDR nosocomial infections by Pseudomonas aeroginosa and XDR tuberculosis by Mycobacterium tuberculosis are now serious threat to human and alternative approaches should be needed to overcome such crisis . MDR genes (blaTEM, amp, blaNDM, blaOXA, sul1/2, catB3, aacA4, aacC2, aph, aad, dhfr, arr3,strA/B, etc) and drug efflux genes (tetA, acrAB-TolC, mexAB-oprM, mcr, macAB, norA, mdtA etc.) are wide spread in conjugative plasmids and chromosomes of superbugs which are also found in rain, sea and river water posing a threat to global peoples .