Environmental risk factors for multiple sclerosis. Part I: The role of infection

@article{Ascherio2007EnvironmentalRF,
  title={Environmental risk factors for multiple sclerosis. Part I: The role of infection},
  author={Alberto Ascherio and Kassandra L. Munger},
  journal={Annals of Neurology},
  year={2007},
  volume={61}
}
Although genetic susceptibility explains the clustering of multiple sclerosis (MS) cases within families and the sharp decline in risk with increasing genetic distance, it cannot fully explain the geographic variations in MS frequency and the changes in risk that occur with migration. Epidemiological data provide some support for the “hygiene hypothesis,” but with the additional proviso for a key role of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) in determining MS risk. We show that whereas EBV stands out as the… 
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TLDR
The evidence for environmental factors that have been repeatedly shown to influence the risk of MS: Epstein-Barr virus infection, ultraviolet radiation exposure habits /vitamin D status, and smoking are reviewed.
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TLDR
Among these, vitamin D status, infection with the Epstein-Barr virus, and cigarette smoking are emerging as the most consistent predictors of MS risk.
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TLDR
The Model suggests that genetic susceptibility is overwhelmingly the most important determinant of MS pathogenesis, and that a therapeutic strategy, designed to interrupt one or more of these sequential factors, has the potential to markedly reduce or eliminate disease prevalence in the future.
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  • Medicine
    Expert review of neurotherapeutics
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TLDR
A new avenue is the search for an interaction between genetic and environmental causes, and also between several environmental factors that might lead to new approaches for prevention and, perhaps, for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.
Epstein-Barr virus is a necessary causative agent in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis: Yes
A number of genetic and environmental risk factors have been implicated in multiple sclerosis (MS) risk, of which Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the leading candidate of proposed infectious agents. A
Role of environmental factors in multiple sclerosis
TLDR
There is some evidence that tobacco smoking, insufficient vitamin D levels and/or sun exposure have impacts on MS phenotypes and various markers of disease activity including relapse, disability progression and MRI findings, and the effect of environmental factors on MS disease course requires significantly more research.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Multiple Sclerosis Risk: Probing for a Connection
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease of the nervous system, with intense genetic and environmental background. Its etiology is poorly understood and likely
Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Multiple Sclerosis Risk: Probing for a
TLDR
It is concluded that studies in this milieu hitherto are insufficient, and there is need for an upsurge in molecular epidemiological and clinical studies, with focus on the mechanism behind the impact of HIV/antiretroviral drugs on MS.
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