Environmental risk factors for multiple sclerosis. Part II: Noninfectious factors

@article{Ascherio2007EnvironmentalRF,
  title={Environmental risk factors for multiple sclerosis. Part II: Noninfectious factors},
  author={Alberto Ascherio and Kassandra L. Munger},
  journal={Annals of Neurology},
  year={2007},
  volume={61}
}
As discussed in Part I of this review, the geographic distribution of multiple sclerosis (MS) and the change in risk among migrants provide compelling evidence for the existence of strong environmental determinants of MS, where “environmental” is broadly defined to include differences in diet and other behaviors. As we did for infections, we focus here primarily on those factors that may contribute to explain the geographic variations in MS prevalence and the change in risk among migrants… 
Environmental risk factors in multiple sclerosis
  • K. Lauer
  • Medicine
    Expert review of neurotherapeutics
  • 2010
TLDR
A new avenue is the search for an interaction between genetic and environmental causes, and also between several environmental factors that might lead to new approaches for prevention and, perhaps, for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.
The Role of Environment and Lifestyle in Determining the Risk of Multiple Sclerosis.
TLDR
The evidence for environmental factors that have been repeatedly shown to influence the risk of MS: Epstein-Barr virus infection, ultraviolet radiation exposure habits /vitamin D status, and smoking are reviewed.
Environmental factors influencing multiple sclerosis in Latin America
TLDR
Ethnic and geographic differences between Latin America and other world regions suggest potential regional variations in MS, at least with respect to some of these factors.
The four seasons of multiple sclerosis
TLDR
Environmental factors purported to play a role in risk of MS development or progression include viruses such as Epstein-Barr virus, vitamin D levels, and smoking, as well as diet, obesity, pregnancy, hormones, and stress.
The increasing incidence and prevalence of female multiple sclerosis--a critical analysis of potential environmental factors.
TLDR
It is determined that the biologically most plausible explanations for a disproportional increase of MS among women in some population may be the role of vitamin D in MS pathogenesis.
The risk of smoking on multiple sclerosis: a meta-analysis based on 20,626 cases from case-control and cohort studies
TLDR
It is demonstrated that exposure to smoking is an important risk factor for MS, and policymakers should pay attention to the association between smoking and MS.
Is hypovitaminosis D one of the environmental risk factors for multiple sclerosis?
TLDR
A final global analysis of the cumulative significance of the different types of findings suggests that it would appear likely that hypovitaminosis D is one of the risk factors for multiple sclerosis.
Sex-specific environmental influences affecting MS development.
TLDR
Large population-based case-control studies from well defined geographic areas with homogeneous populations should be performed, in order to define environmental factor effects, and sex hormone influences, to better understand prevalence and incidence gender differences observed.
Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis: from risk factors to prevention.
TLDR
Among these, vitamin D status, infection with the Epstein-Barr virus, and cigarette smoking are emerging as the most consistent predictors of MS risk.
Sun Exposure, Vitamin D and Age at Disease Onset in Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis
TLDR
Evidence is provided for an association between vitamin-D-related exposures during childhood and early adolescence and the timing of MS symptom onset, and supports vitamin D as a potential modulator of the clinical course of this disease.
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TLDR
It is shown that whereas EBV stands out as the only infectious agent that can explain many of the key features of MS epidemiology, by itself the link between EBV and MS cannot explain the decline in risk among migrants from high to low MS prevalence areas, which implies that either EBV strains in low‐risk areas have less propensity to cause MS, or that other infectious or noninfectious factors modify the host response to EBV or otherwise contribute to determine MS risk.
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TLDR
The frequency of multiple sclerosis occurs with essentially the same frequency among different ethnic groups born in the same region, and it would be expected that populations with a high frequency of the disease would have greater exposure to the factor(s) than populations with low frequency.
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TLDR
An association between MS and higher educational level, employment in public administration, past history of allergies, and infection at an early age with measles, rubella and whooping cough is found.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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