Environmental pollutants, diet, physical activity, body size, and breast cancer

  title={Environmental pollutants, diet, physical activity, body size, and breast cancer},
  author={Julia Green Brody and Ruthann A. Rudel and Karin B. Michels and Kirsten B. Moysich and Leslie Bernstein and Kathleen R Attfield and Sharon Gray},
Breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer in women worldwide and the leading cause of death in US women in mid‐life. Treatment has adverse effects, adding to the importance of finding modifiable risk factors. At the invitation of Susan G. Komen for the Cure, we reviewed studies of breast cancer and environmental pollutants, diet (assessed prospectively), body size, and physical activity, and animal studies that identify chemicals as potential mammary carcinogens. Databases developed in… 

New Exposure Biomarkers as Tools for Breast Cancer Epidemiology, Biomonitoring, and Prevention: A Systematic Approach Based on Animal Evidence

This review identified and brought together the needed tools to facilitate the measurement of biomarkers of exposure to potential breast carcinogens in breast cancer studies and biomonitoring and found exposure biomarkers have been developed for nearly three-quarters of these rodent mammary carcinogens.

Exposure to hazardous air pollutants and risk of incident breast cancer in the nurses’ health study II

Exposures to HAPs during adulthood were not consistently associated with an increased risk of overall or estrogen-receptor subtypes of invasive breast cancer in this nationwide cohort of women.

Endocrine disrupting chemicals as potential risk factor for estrogen-dependent cancers.

The possible mechanisms of how these substances alter the function of the endocrine system, resulting in adverse health effects are analyzed, including the role of EDCs in hormone-dependent carcinogenesis.

Mapping the Human Exposome to Uncover the Causes of Breast Cancer

It is hypothesized that by measuring a rich set of molecular information with omics and comparing these profiles using a case-control design the authors can pinpoint novel environmental risk factors and extend understanding of how environmental exposures interact with genetics to affect health, and provide evidence of new breast cancer prevention strategies.

Environmental exposures during windows of susceptibility for breast cancer: a framework for prevention research

An integrative model of breast cancer research is needed to determine the impact and mechanisms of action of endocrine disruptors at different WOS, and scientists and their community partners may identify when prevention efforts are likely to be most effective.

Assessing Heavy Metal and PCB Exposure from Tap Water by Measuring Levels in Plasma from Sporadic Breast Cancer Patients, a Pilot Study

Data is presented that shows environmental exposure to heavy metals and PCBs in drinking water, heavy metal presence in plasma of nine patients with sporadic BrCA, and Toxic Release Inventory and geological data for a metal of concern, uranium, in Northeast Georgia.

Effect of obesity and other lifestyle factors on mortality in women with breast cancer

High BMI was the lifestyle risk factor that most consistently modified breast cancer prognosis in this study, and no significant relationship with survival after breast cancer emerged for several other major lifestyle factors, including physical activity, alcohol drinking, exogenous hormones use and fat intake.

Environmental Exposures and Mammary Gland Development: State of the Science, Public Health Implications, and Research Recommendations

Assessment of MG development should be incorporated in chemical test guidelines and risk assessment, and relationships between altered development and effects on lactation or carcinogenesis are still being defined.

Effects of Ambient Particulate Matter on Human Breast Cancer: Is Xenogenesis Responsible?

Findings and clinical data indicate that long-term air pollution exposure may contribute to the development of breast cancer by playing the role of a xenoestrogen, and provides new insight into the association between air pollution and the morbidity and mortality of Breast cancer patients.



Breast cancer and environmental risk factors: epidemiological and experimental findings.

Research on etiology of breast cancer should measure environmental exposures and take into account the time of life at which these occur, as well as complex interactions between exogenous and endogenous carcinogenic agents need further focus.

Environmental pollutants and breast cancer.

Evidence to date generally supports an association between breast cancer and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in conjunction with certain genetic polymorphisms involved in carcinogen activation and steroid hormone metabolism.

Chemicals causing mammary gland tumors in animals signal new directions for epidemiology, chemicals testing, and risk assessment for breast cancer prevention

This is the most comprehensive list developed of animal mammary gland carcinogens and, along with associated data, is publicly available at URL: www.silentspring.org/sciencereview.

Diet and breast cancer

There is no association that is consistent, strong, and statistically significant, with the exception of alcohol intake, overweight, and weight gain, among the prospective epidemiologic studies conducted on diet and breast cancer incidence and gene‐diet interactions.

Alcohol and breast cancer in women: a pooled analysis of cohort studies.

Alcohol consumption is associated with a linear increase in breast cancer incidence in women over the range of consumption reported by most women, and reducing alcohol consumption is a potential means to reduce breast cancer risk.

Environmental toxins and breast cancer on Long Island. I. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon DNA adducts.

  • M. GammonR. Santella V. Vinceguerra
  • Medicine
    Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • 2002
Data indicate that PAH-DNA adduct formation may influence breast cancer development, although the association does not appear to be dose dependent and may have a threshold effect.

Chemically induced mammary gland cancer in the National Toxicology Program's carcinogenesis bioassay.

Experimental studies show that chemicals identified to cause mammary gland cancer in rodents are frequently mutagenic chemicals, suggesting that genetic damage is an important mechanism for the induction of this cancer.

Review of anthropometric factors and breast cancer risk

  • C. Friedenreich
  • Medicine, Biology
    European journal of cancer prevention : the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation
  • 2001
Sufficient evidence exists to support strategies to avoid weight gain throughout life as a means of reducing postmenopausal breast cancer risk, and recommendations for future research on anthropometric factors and breast cancer are provided.

Epidemiology and prevention of breast cancer.

Little can be done at present to reduce breast cancer risk through primary prevention, but secondary prevention by mammographic screening in women of age 50 and older reduces mortality from breast cancer.

Occupational cancer among women: where have we been and where are we going?

  • S. ZahmA. Blair
  • Medicine, Economics
    American journal of industrial medicine
  • 2003
Occupational cancer researchers need to expand their focus on women, increase activities in developing countries, include newly created industries, use sophisticated exposure assessment methods, and, where appropriate, incorporate molecular epidemiologic techniques to discover new occupational carcinogens and to identify where better control measures are needed.