Environmental exposure to endotoxin and its relation to asthma in school-age children.

  title={Environmental exposure to endotoxin and its relation to asthma in school-age children.},
  author={C. Braun‐fahrl{\"a}nder and Josef Riedler and Udo Herz and Waltraud Eder and Marco Waser and Leticia Grize and Soyoun Maisch and David Carr and Florian Gerlach and Albrecht Bufe and Roger Lauener and Rudolf Schierl and Harald Renz and Dennis Nowak and Erika von Mutius},
  journal={The New England journal of medicine},
  volume={347 12},
BACKGROUND In early life, the innate immune system can recognize both viable and nonviable parts of microorganisms. Immune activation may direct the immune response, thus conferring tolerance to allergens such as animal dander or tree and grass pollen. METHODS Parents of children who were 6 to 13 years of age and were living in rural areas of Germany, Austria, or Switzerland where there were both farming and nonfarming households completed a standardized questionnaire on asthma and hay fever… 

Assessment of endotoxin levels in the home and current asthma and wheeze in school-age children.

Household endotoxin is not a risk factor for current asthma overall but may be associated with increased severity in children with atopic asthma, and within atopic asthmatics, asthma severity was associated with higher levels of endotoxin in dust from the child's bed.

Exposure to environmental microorganisms and childhood asthma.

Children living on farms had lower prevalences of asthma and atopy and were exposed to a greater variety of environmental microorganisms than the children in the reference group, and this exposure explains a substantial fraction of the inverse relation between asthma and growing up on a farm.

Exposure to house dust endotoxin and allergic sensitization in allergic and nonallergic children living in Adana, Turkey.

Investigating associations between house dust endotoxin levels and allergic sensitization in children with self-reported allergic diseases and healthy children found that in the past, the levels of endotoxin in living room floor dust of homes of allergic and nonallergic children in the study population were not associated with allergy sensitization.

Exposure to Pets, and the Association With Hay Fever, Asthma, and Atopic Sensitization in Rural Children

It is found that animal exposure is most likely to provide a protective effect when the total level of exposure is highest (ie, those children exposed to pets and farm animals).

Asthma and allergies in rural areas of Europe.

An important role for innate immune responses is suggested by findings relating to increased expression of genes of Toll-like receptors in exposed children and how this activation of innate immunity is translated into reduced IgE-specific adaptive immune responses remains to be elucidated.

Respiratory effects of endotoxin exposure : Individual susceptibility and gene-environment interactions

An important role for individual susceptibility to the adverse effects of endotoxin was implied by the finding that associations between occupational endotoxin exposure and respiratory effects were only observed in the subgroup of subjects with above median cytokine response by ex vivo LPS-stimulated blood monocytes.

Farm dust and endotoxin protect against allergy through A20 induction in lung epithelial cells

It is shown that chronic exposure to low-dose endotoxin or farm dust protects mice from developing house dust mite–induced asthma, and a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the gene encoding A20 was associated with allergy and asthma risk in children growing up on farms.



Modification of the inflammatory response to allergen challenge after exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide.

Exposure to LPS can modify the development of allergic inflammation in vivo by two independent mechanisms, and is demonstrated to abolish the hyperresponsiveness and modify the inflammatory cell influx characteristic of late-phase response to allergen.

(1 → 3)- β -d-Glucan and Endotoxin in House Dust and Peak Flow Variability in Children

Although no associations were found with microbial agent levels in bedroom floor or mattress dust, high levels of (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan in living room floor dust apparently increase PEF variability in asthmatic children.

House dust endotoxin and wheeze in the first year of life.

It is suggested that home endotoxin exposure may independently increase risk of any wheeze and repeated wheeZE during the first year of life for children with a familial predisposition to asthma or allergy.

Asthma and wheezing in the first six years of life. The Group Health Medical Associates.

Children who started wheezing in early life and continued to wheeze at the age of six were more likely than the children who never wheezed to have mothers with a history of asthma, but do not have increased risks of asthma or allergies later in life.

Pulmonary function and symptoms after inhalation of endotoxin.

The results further support the conclusions from epidemiologic and experimental studies that the bacterial endotoxin is responsible for the acute reactions seen after exposure to many organic dusts, including that derived from cotton.

Lower prevalence of asthma and atopy in Turkish children living in Germany.

The findings suggest that the lower prevalence of asthma and allergy in Turkish children living in Germany might be attributable to a selection bias affecting the parents of these children, as healthy individuals may have decided to come to Germany for work.