Environmental effects from burning oil wells in Kuwait

  title={Environmental effects from burning oil wells in Kuwait},
  author={Keith Anthony Browning and R. J. Allam and Susan P. Ballard and R. T. H. Barnes and Darren. Bennetts and R. H. Maryon and P. J. Mason and Daniel S. McKenna and J. F. B. Mitchell and Catherine A. Senior and Anthony Slingo and F. B. Smith},
Model calculations, constrained by satellite observations, indicate that most of the smoke from the oil fires in Kuwait will remain in the lowest few kilometres of the troposphere. Beneath the plume there is a severe reduction in daylight, and a day-time temperature drop of ~10 °C within ~200 km of the source. Episodic events of acid rain and photochemical smog will occur within ~1,000-2,000km of Kuwait. But changes in the Asian summer monsoon are unlikely to exceed the natural interannual… 
Environmental impact assessment
Airborne observations of the physical and chemical characteristics of the Kuwait oil smoke plume
Airborne measurements in the densest part of the smoke plume at about 120km from the burning wells in Kuwait in late March 1991 showed typical particulate mass densities of 500–1,000 µgm−3, mixing
Dynamical and radiative response to the massive injection of aerosol from Kuwait oil burning fires
The effects of the injection of large amount of soot comparable to that produced in the burning of oil wells in Kuwait were studied using a 2-D mesoscale model. During the three day numerical
Radiative effects of the smoke clouds from the Kuwait oil fires
The radiative effects of the smoke from the Kuwait oil fires were assessed by measuring downwelling and upwelling solar flux, as well as spectral solar extinction beneath, above, and within the smoke
Airborne Studies of the Smoke from the Kuwait Oil Fires
Airborne studies of smoke from the Kuwait oil fires were carried out in the spring of 1991 and probably had insignificant global effects because particle emissions were less than expected, the smoke was not as black as expected, and the smoke had a short atmospheric residence time.
Studies of the Kuwait oil fire plume during midsummer 1991
This paper reports aircraft observations of the Kuwait oil fire plume conducted during the period July 31-August 17, 1991. During this study the plume was transported almost exclusively to the south
Evidence for long‐range transport of aerosol from the Kuwaiti oil fires to Hawaii
To detect long-range transport of Kuwaiti oil-fire smoke, fine-particle aerosol samples were collected on a weekly basis from May through July 1991 at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Hydroxyl radical concentrations and Kuwait oil fire emission rates for March 1991
Toward the end of the Gulf War, Iraqi troops damaged several hundred oil wells in Kuwait setting many of them on fire. Measurements made in March 1991, a few weeks after most of the fires had started


Importance of local mesoscale factors in any assessment of nuclear winter
There is a possibility that severe climate perturbations would follow a major nuclear war (the ‘nuclear winter’) due to the injection of large amounts of smoke into the atmosphere1–6. Given
Climate and smoke: an appraisal of nuclear winter.
The latest understanding of nuclear winter is reviewed, and serious new environmental problems associated with soot injection have been identified, including disruption of monsoon precipitation and severe depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer in the Northern Hemisphere.
Dirty snow after nuclear war
The notion that smoke from fires started by nuclear explosions could alter the Earth's climate1 is supported by quantitative models of climate2–5,27 showing that severe cooling may be expected at
Climatic response to large atmospheric smoke injections: Sensitivity studies with a tropospheric general circulation model
A tropospheric general circulation model is coupled with a Lagrangian trace species transport and removal model to determine the climatic response to continental-scale smoke injections arising from
Nuclear war: Illustrative effects of atmospheric smoke and dust upon solar radiation
  • R. Cess
  • Environmental Science, Physics
  • 1985
It has recently been suggested that following a nuclear exchange there might be a significant reduction in surface temperature over land areas, due to the impact upon the radiation budget of the
Climatic effects of nuclear war: The role of atmospheric stability and ground heat fluxes
Most studies of the climatic effects of nuclear war have used atmospheric models with simple representations of important physical processes. In this work, a model is used which treats the diurnal
"Nuclear winter" from gulf war discounted.
The British Meteorological Office and researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory concluded that the effect of smoke from major oil fires in Kuwait on global temperatures is likely to be small; however, the obscuration of sunlight might significantly reduce surface temperatures locally.
Source terms and source strengths of the carbonaceous aerosol in the tropics
Atmospheric aerosol samples were collected in the Ivory Coast, primarily at Lamto (6°N, 5°W) between 1979 and 1981. The samples were analysed for total particulate carbon concentration and isotopic
Prediction of seasonal rainfall in the sahel region using empirical and dynamical methods
Long-range weather forecasting is a notoriously difficult area of environmental science. However, recent improved understanding of atmospheric dynamics and better observations indicate that useful