Environmental controls on the geographic distribution of zooplankton diversity

  title={Environmental controls on the geographic distribution of zooplankton diversity},
  author={Scott David Rutherford and Steven D’Hondt and Warren L. Prell},
Proposed explanations for the geographic distribution of zooplankton diversity include control of diversity by geographic variation in: physical and chemical properties of the near-surface ocean; the surface area of biotic provinces; energy availability; rates of evolution and extinction; and primary productivity. None of these explanations has been quantitatively tested on a basin-wide scale. Here we used assemblages of planktic foraminifera from surface sediments to test these hypotheses. Our… 

Towards an understanding of the pattern of biodiversity in the oceans

A new theory based upon the concept of the niche sensu Hutchinson and the principle of competitive exclusion shows that the latitudinal diversity gradient in the marine environment may result from an interaction between the thermal tolerances of species and climatic variability, and reveals how patterns of biodiversity may develop.

Environmental Predictors of Diversity in Recent Planktonic Foraminifera as Recorded in Marine Sediments

The results suggest the diversity patterns of planktonic foraminifera cannot be explained by any one environmental variable or proposed mechanism, but instead reflect multiple processes acting in concert.

Planktonic biodiversity hotspots in the open ocean : detection, drivers and implications at the global scale

Patterns of biodiversity and the mechanisms that maintain them have always interested biologists and have been addressed considering geological, evolutionary and ecological factors. Ecological

Global pattern of phytoplankton diversity driven by temperature and environmental variability

The nonmonotonic relationship between phytoplankton richness and temperature suggests unanticipated complexity in responses of marine biodiversity to ocean warming.

Global latitudinal variations in marine copepod diversity and environmental factors

The first global description of geographical variation in the diversity of marine copepods, a key trophic link between phytoplankton and fish, in relation to environmental variables is provided, finding a polar–tropical difference in copepod diversity in the Northern Hemisphere where diversity peaked at subtropical latitudes.

Planktonic equatorial diversity troughs: fact or artifact? Latitudinal diversity gradients in Radiolaria.

Using a worldwide database critically compiled from 72 surveys, latitudinal gradients in species richness (LGSR) of a highly diversified group of marine holoplanktonic protists, the polycystine Radiolaria, do not show this drop at the equator.

Large-scale diversity patterns of cephalopods in the Atlantic open ocean and deep sea.

Large-scale latitudinal and depth-related patterns of pelagic cephalopod richness in the Atlantic Ocean in relation to ambient thermal and productive energy availability are examined, suggesting that ceps are well adapted to the spatial patchiness and seasonality of open-ocean resources.

Large-scale biodiversity patterns in freshwater phytoplankton.

It is found that phytoplankton species richness was an increasing saturating function of lake chlorophyll a concentration, increased with lake surface area and possibly increased with water temperature, resembling effects of productivity, habitat area, and temperature on diversity patterns commonly observed for macroorganisms.

Ecological partitioning and diversity in tropical planktonic foraminifera

The findings suggest that ecological partitioning could be contributing to the high levels of 'cryptic' genetic diversity observed within the planktonic foraminifera, and support the view that ecological processes may play a key role in the diversification of marine pelagic organisms.

A latitudinal diversity gradient in planktonic marine bacteria

The latitudinal gradient in marine bacteria supports the hypothesis that the kinetics of metabolism, setting the pace for life, has strong influence on diversity.



Dominance and Diversity Maintenance in an Oceanic Ecosystem

Although the theories are satisfactory explanations of diversity maintenance in sessile systems, the results fail to validate them in the authors' mobile pelagic system, and it is believed that the highly diverse community to be resilient and robust, rather than fragile.

Phytoplankton in an Oligotrophic Ocean: Observations and Questions

Two distinct, recurring floral associations, separated by a region of rapid transition near or below 100 m, are identified, apparently related to the "nutrient limited" and "light limited" physiological regimes described previously.

Energy and Large-Scale Patterns of Animal- and Plant-Species Richness

  • D. Currie
  • Environmental Science
    The American Naturalist
  • 1991
It is found that, in the four vertebrate classes studied, 80%-93% of the variability in species richness could be statistically explained by a monotonically increasing function of a single variable: annual potential evapotranspiration (PET).

Generation and Maintenance of Gradients in Taxonomic Diversity

The latitude-dependent difference in rates of evolution has consequences for paleontological correlation of rocks because the attainable resolution depends on rate of evolution and will thus be greater in tropic regions than in extra-tropical ones.

Taxonomic evolution of Neogene planktonic foraminifera and paleoceanographic relations

The taxonomic evolution of Neogene (24 Ma to present day) planktonic foraminiferal species are described using four indices: rate of speciation, rate of extinction, rate of diversification, and rate

The Ecological Regulation of Species Diversity

The hypothesis that the tropics are closer to equilibrium while the temperate zone is in a "successional" state of development of diversity is not accepted, for theoretical reasons and for lack of evidence.

Recent Planktonic Foraminifera: Dominance and Diversity in North Atlantic Surface Sediments

Anticipated pole-to-equator diversity and dominance gradients in the open ocean are virtually eliminated by the stronger trends of the vigorous subtropical North Atlantic gyre.