Environmental contamination makes an important contribution to hospital infection.

@article{Boyce2007EnvironmentalCM,
  title={Environmental contamination makes an important contribution to hospital infection.},
  author={John M. Boyce},
  journal={The Journal of hospital infection},
  year={2007},
  volume={65 Suppl 2},
  pages={
          50-4
        }
}
  • J. Boyce
  • Published 1 June 2007
  • Medicine, Biology
  • The Journal of hospital infection
Are Room Decontamination Units Needed to Prevent Transmission of Environmental Pathogens?
  • W. Rutala, D. Weber
  • Medicine, Biology
    Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology
  • 2011
TLDR
Admission to a room in which the previous patient had been colonized or infected with MRSA, VRE, or C. difficile has been shown to be a risk factor for the newly admitted patient to develop colonization or infection.
The role of the surface environment in healthcare-associated infections
TLDR
The evidence demonstrating the importance of contamination of hospital surfaces in the transmission of healthcare-associated pathogens and interventions scientifically demonstrated to reduce the levels of microbial contamination and decrease healthcare- associated infections are reviewed.
Role of the hospital environment in disease transmission, with a focus on Clostridium difficile
TLDR
Key measures to prevent C. difficile transmission and infection include antibiotic stewardship (minimising antibiotic use), placing patients with CDI on contact precautions, and proper cleaning and disinfection of the surfaces in hospital rooms daily and at discharge using a sporicidal disinfectant or a ‘no-touch' method.
Environmental control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and other hospital acquired infections.
  • L. Curtis
  • Medicine
    Journal of burn care & research : official publication of the American Burn Association
  • 2008
TLDR
It is reported that increased patient space and improved air quality in a renovated burn intensive care unit was associated with a significant drop in methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus cases and environmental controls such as air filters and improved handwashing and room cleaning procedures can also significantly reduce pathogen levels in air, dust, and on surfaces.
The identification and epidemiology of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile in patient rooms and the ward environment
TLDR
In patient rooms and the ward environment, specific materials and locations were identified as being contaminated with MRSA or C. difficile and these sites should be cleaned and disinfected with increased vigilance to help limit the transmission and dissemination of MRSA and C.difficile.
Environmental surfaces in healthcare setting: a great potential risk of pathogens transmission
TLDR
Hospital environment is contaminated by a variety of pathogenic and opportunist, resistant and sensitive bacteria isolated from many surfaces sites of patients rooms, and hospital must implement evidence-based infection prevention measures to reduce the risk of transmission of pathogens via contaminated hospital surfaces and medical equipment.
Indoor Finish Material Influence on Contamination, Transmission, and Eradication of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
TLDR
Environmental surface material wear, properties, and cleaning and disinfection efficacy are important factors to consider when addressing HAIs, and Bleach and the novel disinfectant were equally effective at disinfecting MRSA from all surface types.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus: recognition and prevention in intensive care units.
TLDR
The evidence for these interventions to help ICU personnel better control MRSA and VRE in their units is reviewed, such as daily chlorhexidine bathing of all patients in the ICU.
Colonization of patients and contamination of the patients' environment by MRSA under conditions of single-room isolation.
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References

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Environmental Contamination Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Possible Infection Control Implications
TLDR
It is concluded that inanimate surfaces near affected patients commonly become contaminated with MRSA and that the frequency of contamination is affected by the body site at which patients are colonized or infected.
Transfer of vancomycin-resistant enterococci via health care worker hands.
TLDR
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci were transferred from contaminated sites in the environment or on patients' intact skin to clean sites via HCW hands or gloves in 10.6% of opportunities.
Evidence that hospital hygiene is important in the control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
TLDR
Thorough and continuous attention to ward hygiene and removal of dust was needed, to terminate a prolonged outbreak of MRSA infection on a general surgical ward, in addition to standard infection control measures.
Role of environmental contamination as a risk factor for acquisition of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in patients treated in a medical intensive care unit.
TLDR
Among all other factors associated with VRE transmission, VRE acquisition may depend on room contamination, even after extensive cleaning, which underscores the need for better cleaning and the role of the environment in transmission of VRE.
Hospital-acquired infection with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium transmitted by electronic thermometers.
TLDR
This nosocomial outbreak of infection due to a highly vancomycin-resistant strain of Enterococcus is the first epidemic in which an electronic thermometer has been implicated as the vehicle of transmission for an infectious agent.
Reduction in acquisition of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus after enforcement of routine environmental cleaning measures.
TLDR
Investigating the effects of improved environmental cleaning with and without promotion of hand hygiene adherence on the spread of vancomycin-resistant enterococci as a marker organism found decreased in period 2 and remained low thereafter, suggesting decreasing environmental contamination may help to control thespread of some antibiotic-resistant bacteria in hospitals.
Role of environmental contamination in the transmission of vancomycin-resistant enterococci.
TLDR
Data accumulated via the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance system revealed that VRE increased 35-fold among all nosocomial isolates of enterococci between 1989 and 1995, and the disposable gowns of nurses who cared for a patient with copious diarrhea also were contaminated with VRE.
Outbreak of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in a Burn Unit
TLDR
A VRE outbreak in a BICU over 13 months was caused by a single clone and application of barrier isolation and an aggressive environmental decontamination program can eradicate VRE from a burn population.
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