Environmental (Lifestyle) Risk Factors for LADA.

  title={Environmental (Lifestyle) Risk Factors for LADA.},
  author={Sofia Carlsson},
  journal={Current diabetes reviews},
  volume={15 3},
  • S. Carlsson
  • Published 2019
  • Medicine
  • Current diabetes reviews
BACKGROUND In order to prevent diabetes it is important to identify common, modifiable risk factors in the population. Such knowledge is extensive for type 2 diabetes but limited for autoimmune forms of diabetes. OBJECTIVE This review aims at summarizing the limited literature on potential environmental (lifestyle) risk factors for LADA. METHODS A PubMed search identified 15 papers estimating the risk of LADA in relation to lifestyle. These were based on data from two population-based… 

Lifestyle or Environmental Influences and Their Interaction With Genetic Susceptibility on the Risk of LADA

Background LADA is a common form of diabetes described as a mix between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Understanding of how genes and environmental factors interact in the development of LADA is central

Etiology and Pathogenesis of Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA) Compared to Type 2 Diabetes

Data from the limited number of studies on lifestyle factors available indicate that LADA may share several environmental risk factors with type 2 diabetes including overweight, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption (protective) and smoking, suggesting that onset of LADA, similar to type 1 diabetes, to some extent could be prevented or postponed by lifestyle modification such as weight reduction and increased physical activity.

Type 2 Diabetes: How Much of an Autoimmune Disease?

It is proposed that selective interception (or expansion) of T cell subsets could be an alternative avenue to dampen inappropriate inflammatory responses without compromising immune responses.

Management of Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults: A Consensus Statement From an International Expert Panel

The panel concluded by advising general screening for LADA in newly diagnosed non–insulin-requiring diabetes and, importantly, that large randomized clinical trials are warranted.

Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults and Metabolic Syndrome—A Mini Review

This review covers the prevalence of MetS in LADA, focusing on the risk associated with and the role of insulin resistance in the development of LADA from the perspective of inflammatory factors, environmental factors, and the gut microbiota, aiming to improve the understanding of this condition.

Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults: a focus on β-cell protection and therapy

This review summarizes β-cell function-related heterogeneous factors in LADA, including the age of onset, body mass index, genetic background, and immune, lifestyle, and environmental factors, and evaluates the impact of current hypoglycemic agents and immune intervention therapies for islet β- cell protection.

Clinical Significance of Diabetes-Mellitus-Associated Antibodies in Rheumatoid Arthritis

It is concluded that DMab are associated with DM in RA patients, but they are not solely enough to predict disease development or mortality in those patients.

Peculiarities of the course of diabetic kidney disease in patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults

The course of diabetic kidney disease in patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults differs from that in the classic types of diabetes, which indicates the need to develop a specific algorithm for this cohort of patients.

Adult-onset autoimmune diabetes

This Primer by Buzzetti and colleagues summarizes the epidemiology, mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment of this disorder, and summarizes patient quality of life and open research questions.

Pathophysiological characteristics in patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults using clamp tests: evidence of a continuous disease spectrum of diabetes

The hypothesis that diabetes is a continuous spectrum from T1DM, L ADA1, LADA2 to T2DM was confirmed in this study and Chinese patients with LADA and T1 DM had impaired insulin sensitivity and β-cell function.



Smoking and the Risk of LADA: Results From a Swedish Population-Based Case-Control Study

A protective effect of smoking on autoimmunity and the risk of LADA was not observed, suggesting a protective effect could possibly be masked by a smoking-induced aggravation of insulin resistance, akin to the diabetogenic effect seen in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

Alcohol and the risk for latent autoimmune diabetes in adults: results based on Swedish ESTRID study

The findings indicate that alcohol intake may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes and type 2-like LADA, but has no beneficial effects on diabetes-related autoimmunity.

Environmental/lifestyle factors in the pathogenesis and prevention of type 2 diabetes

A comprehensive overview of factors contributing to diabetes risk, including aspects of diet quality and quantity, little physical activity, increased monitor viewing time or sitting in general, exposure to noise or fine dust, short or disturbed sleep, smoking, stress and depression, and a low socioeconomic status are presented.

Low birthweight is associated with an increased risk of LADA and type 2 diabetes: results from a Swedish case–control study

Findings support LADA, despite its autoimmune component, having an aetiology that includes factors related to type 2 diabetes, and suggest that low birthweight may be a risk factor for LADA of the same strength as for type 2 Diabetes.

Overweight, obesity and the risk of LADA: results from a Swedish case–control study and the Norwegian HUNT Study

Overweight/obesity is associated with increased risk of LADA, particularly when in combination with FHD, and these findings support the hypothesis that, even in the presence of autoimmunity, factors linked to insulin resistance, such as excessive weight, could promote onset of diabetes.

Fatty fish consumption and risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults

The findings suggest that fatty fish consumption may reduce the risk of LADA, possibly through effects of marine-originated omega-3 fatty acids.

Smoking Is Associated With Reduced Risk of Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults Contrasting With Increased Risk in Overweight Men With Type 2 Diabetes

In this epidemiological study, smoking is associated with a reduced risk of autoimmune diabetes, possibly linked to an inhibitory effect on the autoimmune process.

Age, overweight and physical inactivity increase the risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults: results from the Nord-Trøndelag health study

It is suggested that increased age, overweight and physical inactivity are as strong risk factors for LADA as for type 2 diabetes.

Sweetened beverage intake and risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) and type 2 diabetes.

The observed relationship resembled that with type 2 diabetes, suggesting common pathways possibly involving insulin resistance, and high intake of sweetened beverages was associated with increased risk of LADA.