Although entrapment of the popliteal artery is uncommon, it is an important cause of arterial insufficiency in younger patients. Accurate diagnosis depends on a high index of suspicion combined with dynamic noninvasive testing and "stress angiography." Although angiographic demonstration of medial deviation of the artery is diagnostic, absence of this finding does not exclude the diagnosis of entrapment of the popliteal artery. Positional angiography may be necessary in these instances. Surgical exploration should be performed by a posterior approach, since this facilitates identification of the precise anatomic variant while allowing easy arterial repair, if necessary. The condition of the popliteal popliteal artery must dictate the extent of the surgical procedure. If the popliteal artery is normal, then relief of the constricting lesion alone will suffice. If the artery appears diseased or is thrombosed, then myotomy and arterial reconstruction must be performed. This is best accomplished by bypass grafting using autogenous vein or artery. If thromboendarterectomy is used, the clinician can expect a higher percentage of acute postoperative thromboses.