A facultatively anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive bacterium, designated ETRF1T, was found in faecal material of a timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus). Based on a comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolate was assigned to the genus Enterococcus. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain ETRF1T showed >97 % similarity to that of the type strains of Enterococcus rotai, E. caccae, E. silesiacus, E haemoperoxidus, E. ureasiticus, E. moraviensis, E. plantarum, E. quebecensis, E. ureilyticus, E. termitis, E. rivorum and E. faecalis. The organism could be distinguished from these 12 phylogenetically related enterococci using conventional biochemical testing, the Rapid ID32 Strep system, comparative pheS and rpoA gene sequence analysis, and comparative whole genome sequence analysis. The estimated in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values were <70 %, and average nucleotide identity values were <96 %, when compared to these 12 species, further validating that ETRF1T represents a unique species within the genus Enterococcus. On the basis of these analyses, strain ETRF1T (=CCUG 65857T=LMG 28312T) is proposed as the type strain of a novel species, Enterococcus crotali sp. nov.