Enrichment of cereal grains with zinc: Agronomic or genetic biofortification?

  title={Enrichment of cereal grains with zinc: Agronomic or genetic biofortification?},
  author={Ismail Cakmak},
  journal={Plant and Soil},
Zinc deficiency is a well-documented problem in food crops, causing decreased crop yields and nutritional quality. Generally, the regions in the world with Zn-deficient soils are also characterized by widespread Zn deficiency in humans. Recent estimates indicate that nearly half of world population suffers from Zn deficiency. Cereal crops play an important role in satisfying daily calorie intake in developing world, but they are inherently very low in Zn concentrations in grain, particularly… 

Zinc crops 2007: improving crop production and human health

The Zinc Crops 2007 Conference, held in Istanbul, Turkey, on May 24–26 in 2007, has been organized to review and discuss the latest knowledge and best agricultural practices in addressing Zn deficiency and its impact on global crop production and human health.

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This review focuses on agronomic biofortification with Zn, which has proved to be very effective for wheat and also other cereal crops including rice, and provides a practical and cost-effective option to tackle the global Zn malnutrition problem.

Zinc to the sink: Genetics of increased Zn in maize kernels

Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a global health problem particularly in lowand middle-income countries where diets are cereal-based and typically lower in Zn. Biofortification, the genetic enhancement of

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Current review appraised the possible role of Zn in plants, its uptake, translocation and partitioning efficiencies in cereal grains that is driven by various agronomic, breeding and biotechnological approaches and agronome biofortification offers major advantage.

Agronomic and Genetic Biofortification with Fe, Zn of Cereal Crops - A Review

  • S. Mhaske
  • Biology
    International Journal of Pure & Applied Bioscience
  • 2019
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Enrichment of fertilizers with zinc: An excellent investment for humanity and crop production in India.

  • I. Cakmak
  • Biology, Medicine
    Journal of trace elements in medicine and biology : organ of the Society for Minerals and Trace Elements
  • 2009

Zinc Biofortification in Food Crops Could Alleviate the Zinc Malnutrition in Human Health

An agronomic biofortification approach that uses crop fertilization with Zn-based fertilizers at the appropriate time to ensure grain Zn enrichment has been found to be cost-effective, easy to practice, and efficient.

Zinc mediated agronomic bio-fortification of wheat and rice for sustaining food and health security: A review

Zinc (Zn) is essential for growth and development of plants, animals and human beings. Its deficiency poses a serious challenge for crop production, especially for wheat and rice, which are

Review: Biofortification of Cereals with Zinc through Agronomic practices

In the developing world, Zinc deficiency is a bigger most socio-economic concern for the human and constraints for crop production. The deficiency of micronutrients in humans is generally overlapped

Biofortification of cereals with zinc and iron through fertilization strategy.

Zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) deficiencies are well-documented public health issue and an important soil constraint to crop production. Generally, there is a close geographical overlap between soil



Selecting zinc-efficient cereal genotypes for soils of low zinc status

Deficiencies of zinc are well known in all cereals and cereal-growing countries. From physiological evidence reported elsewhere, it would appear that a critical level for zinc is required in the soil

Grain zinc, iron and protein concentrations and zinc-efficiency in wild emmer wheat under contrasting irrigation regimes

High genetic potential of wild emmer wheat to improve grain Zn, Fe and protein concentrations, Zn deficiency tolerance and drought resistance in cultivated wheat is indicated.

Breeding for micronutrients in staple food crops from a human nutrition perspective.

The world's agricultural community should adopt plant breeding and other genetic technologies to improve human health, and the world's nutrition and health communities should support these efforts.

Micronutrient fortification of plants through plant breeding: can it improve nutrition in man at low cost?

  • H. Bouis
  • Medicine, Geography
    Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
  • 2003
Biofortification provides a truly feasible means of reaching malnourished populations in relatively remote rural areas, delivering naturally-fortified foods to population groups with limited access to commercially-marketed fortified foods that are more readily available in urban areas.

Plant nutrition research: Priorities to meet human needs for food in sustainable ways

  • I. Cakmak
  • Environmental Science, Business
    Plant and Soil
  • 2004
The world population is expanding rapidly and will likely be 10 billion by the year 2050. Limited availability of additional arable land and water resources, and the declining trend in crop yields

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The present paper will review the potential for biofortification of UK food crops with Se and suggest that selecting or breeding crop varieties with enhanced Se-accumulation characteristics may be possible in the longer term.

Triticum dicoccoides: An important genetic resource for increasing zinc and iron concentration in modern cultivated wheat

Abstract One major strategy to increase the level of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) in cereal crops, is to exploit the natural genetic variation in seed concentration of these micronutrients. Genotypic