Enhancing learning and retarding forgetting: Choices and consequences

  title={Enhancing learning and retarding forgetting: Choices and consequences},
  author={Harold Pashler and Doug Rohrer and Nicholas Cepeda and Shana K. Carpenter},
  journal={Psychonomic Bulletin \& Review},
Our research on learning enhancement has been focusing on the consequences for learning and forgetting of some of the more obvious and concrete choices that arise in instruction, including questions such as these: How does spacing of practice affect retention of information over significant retention intervals (up to 1 year)? Do spacing effects generalize beyond recall of verbal materials? Is feedback needed to promote learning, and must it be immediate? Although retrieval practice has been… 
Using Spacing to Enhance Diverse Forms of Learning: Review of Recent Research and Implications for Instruction
Every day, students and instructors are faced with the decision of when to study information. The timing of study, and how it affects memory retention, has been explored for many years in research on
The effects of tests on learning and forgetting
In three experiments, it is investigated whether memory tests enhance learning and reduce forgetting more than additional study opportunities do and whether testing enhanced overall recall more than restudying did.
Fractional Recall: Understanding Forgetting of Mathematics Learning from Computer Assisted Instruction Data and Implications for Personalized Learning in Low Resource Contexts
Author(s): Tibbles, Richard | Advisor(s): Jernigan, Terry | Abstract: Recent work in forgetting and spacing of learning across long time scales suggests that which has been learned is easily
Acknowledgments and Dedication
In recent years, a great deal of cognitive science research has focused on principles of learning that can be used to enhance education. And yet these principles have rarely been tested in real-world
Memory in Educational Settings
The issues of long-term retention, transfer, and the relativity of memory phenomena are considered, all of which often constrain the applicability of basic research to educational settings.
Increasing Retention Without Increasing Study Time
Because people forget much of what they learn, students could benefit from learning strategies that yield long-lasting knowledge. Yet surprisingly little is known about how long-term retention is
Distributed Learning: Data, Metacognition, and Educational Implications
A major decision that must be made during study pertains to the distribution, or the scheduling, of study. In this paper, we review the literature on the benefits of spacing, or spreading one's study
Effects of the initial test interval and feedback timing on L2 vocabulary retention
  • Lin Guo
  • Psychology
    The Language Learning Journal
  • 2018
The results suggested that memory is susceptible to decay and disruption after retrieval, and testing might not insulate memory strength and content from modification, but repeated retrievals might reduce the susceptibility to interference.
Distributing learning over time: the spacing effect in children's acquisition and generalization of science concepts.
Early elementary school children were presented with science lessons on 1 of 3 schedules: massed, clumped, and spaced, and results revealed that spacing lessons out in time resulted in higher generalization performance for both simple and complex concepts.


The effects of tests on learning and forgetting
In three experiments, it is investigated whether memory tests enhance learning and reduce forgetting more than additional study opportunities do and whether testing enhanced overall recall more than restudying did.
The Effect of Overlearning on Long-Term Retention
Once material has been learned to a criterion of one perfect trial, further study within the same session constitutes overlearning. Although overlearning is a popular learning strategy, its effect on
When does feedback facilitate learning of words?
Supplying the correct answer after an incorrect response not only improved performance during the initial learning session--it also increased final retention by 494% and made little difference either immediately or at a delay, regardless of whether the subject was confident in the response.
The Power of Testing Memory: Basic Research and Implications for Educational Practice
This article selectively review laboratory studies that reveal the power of testing in improving retention and then turns to studies that demonstrate the basic effects in educational settings, including the related concepts of dynamic testing and formative assessment.
Untangling the benefits of multiple study opportunities and repeated testing for cued recall
Spacing multiple study opportunities apart from one another is known by psychologists to be a highly effective study method (see Dempster, 1996). This study examines whether including tests during
Testing beyond words: Using tests to enhance visuospatial map learning
The results suggest that the testing effect is not limited to the types of memory that require discrete, verbal responses, and that utilizing covert retrievals may allow the effect to be extended to a variety of complex, nonverbal learning tasks.
What types of learning are enhanced by a cued recall test?
In two experiments, subjects experienced either an intervening cued recall test with feedback, or a restudy presentation after initial exposure to a word pair, revealing a benefit for testing as opposed to restudying.
Distributed practice in verbal recall tasks: A review and quantitative synthesis.
A meta-analysis of the distributed practice effect suggests that ISI and retention interval operate jointly to affect final-test retention; specifically, the ISI producing maximal retention increased as retention interval increased.
Application of the Testing and Spacing Effects to Name Learning
SUMMARY Four experiments investigated the effects of testing and spacing on the learning of face-name stimulus-response pairs. Experiments 1a and 1b compared the recall of names following intervening
Different rates of forgetting following study versus test trials
It is concluded that study and test Trials have different effects upon memory, with study trials promoting memory acquisition, and test trials enhancing the retrieval process itself, which protects against subsequent forgetting.