Enhanced discrimination in autism

  title={Enhanced discrimination in autism},
  author={Michelle O'riordan and Kate C Plaisted},
  journal={Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology},
  pages={961 - 979}
Children with autism are superior to typically developing children at visual search tasks (O'Riordan, Plaisted, Driver, & Baron-Cohen, in press; Plaisted, O'Riordan, & Baron-Cohen, l998b). This study investigates the reasons for this phenomenon. The performance of children with autism and of typically developing children was compared on a series of visual search tasks to investigate two related problems. The first issue was whether the critical determinant of search rate in children is the… 

Perceptual Similarity in Autism

The results suggest that when all participants are attending to the same attributes of an object in the visual domain, people with autism will not display signs of enhanced perceptual similarity.

Why is visual search superior in autism spectrum disorder?

ASD search superiority did not derive from differences in the manner in which individuals with ASD deployed their attention while searching, but from anomalously enhanced perception of stimulus features, which was in turn positively associated with autism symptom severity.

Superior Visual Search in Adults with Autism

  • M. O'riordan
  • Psychology
    Autism : the international journal of research and practice
  • 2004
Experiments 1 and 2 showed that, like children, adults with autism were superior to controls at searching for targets, and Experiment 3 showed that increases in target-distractor similarity slowed the visual search performance of the control group significantly more than that of the autism group, suggesting that the adults with autistic have a superior visual discrimination ability.

Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder are more successful at visual search than typically developing toddlers.

The paradigm required no verbal instructions or feedback, making the task appropriate for toddlers who are pre- or nonverbal, and found that toddlers with ASD were more successful at finding the target than typically developing, age-matched controls.

The Mechanisms Underlying the ASD Advantage in Visual Search

This work surveys the findings of visual search studies from the past 15 years that contrasted the performance of individuals with and without ASD, and discusses some recent results from the laboratory that support an attentional, rather than perceptual explanation for the ASD advantage in visual search.

Seeing the unseen: autism involves reduced susceptibility to inattentional blindness.

Reduced inattentional blindness rates under load in ASD suggests higher perceptual capacity is a core feature, present from childhood and leading to superior performance in various measures of perception and attention.

When do individuals with autism spectrum disorder show superiority in visual search?

It is found that participants with autism spectrum disorder show faster overall reaction times regardless of the number of stimuli and the presence of a target with higher accuracy than controls in a luminance and shape conjunction search task as well as a hard feature search task where the target feature information was ineffective in prioritizing likely target stimuli.

Is superior visual search in autism due to memory in search

... and there is no evidence for memory for rejected distractors in either group Our goal was to test the last hypothesis, using the randomized search method (Horowitz & Wolfe, 1998) to test for

Crowding and visual search in high functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder

The individuals the authors tested demonstrated neither immunity to crowding nor any advantage in the visual search task, suggesting that the underlying mechanism of superior visual search may not be a persistent feature of autism spectrum disorder.



Are people with autism and Asperger syndrome faster than normal on the Embedded Figures Test?

This work aimed to replicate and extend the finding that children with autism show superior performance on the Embedded Figures Test, by collecting response time (RT) data; by testing adults with autism of normal intelligence; and by testing a group of adults with Asperger syndrome, in order to test for differences between autism and Aspergers syndrome.

Working memory in children with autism and with moderate learning difficulties.

It was shown that children with autism were at least as likely as normal children to employ articulatory rehearsal and that they had superior spans to that of children with moderate learning difficulties and group differences in the capacity of the central executive of working memory.

Intact and impaired memory functions in autism.

The group with autism performed significantly worse than comparison subjects on measures of temporal order memory, source memory, supraspan free recall, working memory, and EF, but not on short- and long-term recognition, cued recall, or new learning ability, consistent with the predictions of the EF theory.

Enhanced visual search for a conjunctive target in autism: a research note.

Children with and without autism were compared on two visual search tasks in which a letter target appeared among two sets of letter distracters, and children with autism showed no significant slowing in reaction time in the conjunctive task and were faster than control children in this task.

Enhanced discrimination of novel, highly similar stimuli by adults with autism during a perceptual learning task.

High-functioning adults with autism and control adults were tested on a perceptual learning task that compared discrimination performance on familiar and novel stimuli, which suggested that features held in common between stimuli are processed poorly and features unique to a stimulus are processed well in autism.

Neuropsychological findings in high-functioning men with infantile autism, residual state.

Ten men with clear histories of Infantile autism and approximately average verbal and nonverbal intelligence were studied with a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests, and the autistic group demonstrated dramatic deficits on simple and complex, verbal andnonverbal problem-solving tasks.

An islet of ability in autistic children: a research note.

  • A. ShahU. Frith
  • Psychology
    Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines
  • 1983
An aspect of cognitive functioning in autistic children was investigated by comparing their performance on the Children's Embedded Figures Test with that of MA-matched normal and MA- and CA-matched