Engineering the provitamin A (beta-carotene) biosynthetic pathway into (carotenoid-free) rice endosperm.

  title={Engineering the provitamin A (beta-carotene) biosynthetic pathway into (carotenoid-free) rice endosperm.},
  author={Xudong Ye and Salim Al‐Babili and Andreas Klöti and J Zhang and Paola Lucca and Peter Beyer and Ingo Potrykus},
  volume={287 5451},
Rice (Oryza sativa), a major staple food, is usually milled to remove the oil-rich aleurone layer that turns rancid upon storage, especially in tropical areas. The remaining edible part of rice grains, the endosperm, lacks several essential nutrients, such as provitamin A. Thus, predominant rice consumption promotes vitamin A deficiency, a serious public health problem in at least 26 countries, including highly populated areas of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Recombinant DNA technology was… 

Maize Provitamin A Carotenoids, Current Resources, and Future Metabolic Engineering Challenges

Maize carotenogenesis is discussed with regard to pathway regulation, available resources, and current knowledge for improvingCarotenoid content and levels of provitamin Acarotenoids in edible maize endosperm to improve the nutritional composition of related Poaceae crops.

Provitamin A biofortification of crop plants: a gold rush with many miners.

  • G. Giuliano
  • Biology, Medicine
    Current opinion in biotechnology
  • 2017

Provitamin A Biofortification of Durum Wheat through a TILLING Approach

The production and characterization of a new wheat line biofortified with provitamin A obtained through a nontransgenic approach is described, which sheds new light on the molecular mechanism governing carotenoid biosynthesis in durum wheat.

Enrichment of provitamin A content in durum wheat grain by suppressing β-carotene hydroxylase 1 genes with a TILLING approach

New light is shed on the molecular mechanism governing carotenoid biosynthesis in durum wheat and provides new genotypes that represent a good genetic resource for future breeding programs focused on the provitamin A biofortification through non-transgenic approaches.

Carotenoids in Cassava Roots

The protocols for sampling roots and quantifying carotenoids have been improved, and NIR predictions began to be used, and retention of carOTenoids after different root processing methods has been measured.

Provitamin a biofortification in maize through genetic engineering and marker-assisted selection

The research towards provitamin A biofortification through genetic engineering and marker-assisted selection is reviewed, which opens the window for the improvement of prov vitamin A carotenoids in maize as well as the issues that need the further investigation.

Elevation of the provitamin A content of transgenic tomato plants

Transgenic lines containing a bacterial carotenoid gene (crtI) encoding the enzyme phy toene desaturase, which converts phytoene into lycopene are produced, finding the phenotype has been found to be stable and reproducible over at least four generations.

Metabolic engineering strategies for the production of beneficial carotenoids in plants

The development of gene stacking technologies for carotenoid biosynthesis is evaluated and these technologies will expedite the efforts to bring the health benefits ofcarotenoids and other nutritional compounds to the authors' diet.

Transgenic multivitamin corn through biofortification of endosperm with three vitamins representing three distinct metabolic pathways

E elite inbred South African transgenic corn plants are created in which the levels of 3 vitamins were increased specifically in the endosperm through the simultaneous modification of 3 separate metabolic pathways, opening the way for the development of nutritionally complete cereals to benefit the world's poorest people.



Transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) endosperm expressing daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus) phytoene synthase accumulates phytoene, a key intermediate of provitamin A biosynthesis.

It is demonstrated for the first time that it is in principle possible to engineer a critical step in provitamin A biosynthesis in a non-photosynthetic, carotenoid-lacking plant tissue.

Functional expression of the Erwinia uredovora carotenoid biosynthesis gene crtl in transgenic plants showing an increase of beta-carotene biosynthesis activity and resistance to the bleaching herbicide norflurazon.

Immunogold localization showed that the location of the gene product Crtl was preferentially in the thylakoids, and the transgenic tobacco acquired elevated resistance to the bleaching herbicide norflurazon.

Phytoene synthase from Narcissus pseudonarcissus: functional expression, galactolipid requirement, topological distribution in chromoplasts and induction during flowering.

It is concluded that galactolipids are involved in catalytic activity, but do not serve as a membrane anchor in phytoene synthase, present in the chromoplast stroma.

Chloroplast import of four carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes in vitro reveals differential fates prior to membrane binding and oligomeric assembly.

It was inferred that a membrane-bound regulatory factor plays a decisive role in membrane-binding in the soluble high-molecular-mass complexes of imported carotenogenic enzymes.

New Imperatives for an Old Vitamin (A)VII E. V. McCollum International Lectureship in Nutrition

Observational studies indicate that vitamin A--deficient children grow poorly, are more anemic, have more infections and are more likely to die than their peers, and that the magnitude of many of these consequences is directly related to the severity of the deficiency, even after adjusting for other variables.

A one year study of the macular pigment: the effect of 140 days of a lutein supplement.

The modest period of supplementation with lutein has been estimated to have produced in the subjects a 30 to 40% reduction in blue light reaching the photoreceptors, Bruch's membrane, and the retinal pigment epithelium, the vulnerable tissues affected by AMD.