Engineering bone tissue from human embryonic stem cells.

@article{Marolt2012EngineeringBT,
  title={Engineering bone tissue from human embryonic stem cells.},
  author={Darja Marolt and Iv{\'a}n Marcos Campos and Sarindr Bhumiratana and Ana Koren and Petros Petridis and Geping Zhang and Patrice F Spitalnik and Warren L Grayson and Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
  year={2012},
  volume={109 22},
  pages={8705-9}
}
In extensive bone defects, tissue damage and hypoxia lead to cell death, resulting in slow and incomplete healing. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can give rise to all specialized lineages found in healthy bone and are therefore uniquely suited to aid regeneration of damaged bone. We show that the cultivation of hESC-derived mesenchymal progenitors on 3D osteoconductive scaffolds in bioreactors with medium perfusion leads to the formation of large and compact bone constructs. Notably, the… CONTINUE READING

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