Engineering away our natural defenses: an analysis of shoreline hardening in the US

  title={Engineering away our natural defenses: an analysis of shoreline hardening in the US},
  author={Rachel K. Gittman and F. Joel Fodrie and Alyssa M. Popowich and Danielle A Keller and John F. Bruno and Carolyn A. Currin and CHARLES H. Peterson and Michael F. Piehler},
  journal={Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment},
Rapid population growth and coastal development are primary drivers of marine habitat degradation. [...] Key Result Our analysis indicates that 22 842 km of continental US shoreline – approximately 14% of the total US coastline – has been armored. We also consider how socioeconomic and physical factors relate to the pervasiveness of shoreline armoring and show that housing density, gross domestic product, storms, and wave height are positively correlated with hardening. Over 50% of South Atlantic and Gulf of…Expand

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