Biotechnological applications of recombinant single-domain antibody fragments
- Ario de Marco
- Microbial cell factories
Deposition of beta-amyloid (Abeta) is considered an important early event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and reduction of Abeta levels in the brain could be a viable therapeutic approach. A potentially noninflammatory route to facilitate clearance and reduce toxicity of Abeta is to degrade the peptide using proteolytic nanobodies. Here we show that a proteolytic nanobody engineered to cleave Abeta at its alpha-secretase site has potential therapeutic value. The Asec-1A proteolytic nanobody, derived from a parent catalytic light chain antibody, prevents aggregation of monomeric Abeta, inhibits further aggregation of preformed Abeta aggregates, and reduces Abeta-induced cytotoxicity toward a human neuroblastoma cell line. The nanobody also reduces toxicity induced by overexpression of the human amyloid precursor protein (APP) in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line by cleaving APP at the alpha-secretase site which precludes formation of Abeta. Targeted proteolysis of APP and Abeta with catalytic nanobodies represents a novel therapeutic approach for treating AD where potentially harmful side effects can be minimized.