hiPSC‐derived iMSCs: NextGen MSCs as an advanced therapeutically active cell resource for regenerative medicine
Mesenchymal stroma/stem cells (MSCs) represent a heterogenic cell population that can be isolated from various tissues of the body or can be generated from pluripotent stem cells by in vitro differentiation. Various promising pre-clinical and clinical studies suggest that MSCs might stimulate endogenous regeneration and/or act as anti-inflammatory agents, which could be of high therapeutic relevance for a number of diseases, including graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, inflammatory bowel diseases, or some forms of liver failure. Notably, conflicting results of various studies illustrated that the source of MSCs, the cultivation condition, and the way of administration have important effects on the desired clinical effect. Some of the involved molecular pathways have recently been elucidated and an artificial modulation of these pathways by engineered MSCs might result in superfunctional MSCs for enhanced endogenous regeneration or anti-inflammatory response. In this review, we summarize important findings of conventional MSCs for applications in gastroenterology and we describe the state-of-the-art for the generation of patient-derived iPS cells that eventually might provide genetically engineered superfunctional iPS cells for advanced cell therapies.