Engaging students in learning activities: It is not autonomy support or structure but autonomy support and structure.

  title={Engaging students in learning activities: It is not autonomy support or structure but autonomy support and structure.},
  author={Hyungshim Jang and Johnmarshall Reeve and Edward L. Deci},
  journal={Journal of Educational Psychology},
We investigated 2 engagement-fostering aspects of teachers’ instructional styles—autonomy support and structure—and hypothesized that students’ engagement would be highest when teachers provided high levels of both. Trained observers rated teachers’ instructional styles and students’ behavioral engagement in 133 public high school classrooms in the Midwest, and 1,584 students in Grades 9–11 reported their subjective engagement. Correlational and hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed 3… 

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