Energy restriction and the prevention of breast cancer

@article{Harvie2012EnergyRA,
  title={Energy restriction and the prevention of breast cancer},
  author={Michelle N. Harvie and Anthony Howell},
  journal={Proceedings of the Nutrition Society},
  year={2012},
  volume={71},
  pages={263 - 275}
}
Energy restriction (ER) to control weight is a potential strategy for breast cancer prevention. The protective effects of habitual continuous energy restriction (CER) and weight loss on breast tumour formation have been conclusively demonstrated in animal studies over the past 100 years, and more recently in women using data from observational studies and bariatric surgery. Intermittent energy restriction (IER) and intermittent fasting (IF) are possible alternative preventative approaches which… 
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TLDR
In the short term, IECR is superior to DER with respect to improved insulin sensitivity and body fat reduction and longer-term studies into the safety and effectiveness of I ECR diets are warranted.
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TLDR
Overall, whilst much remains to be learned about IER, including its mechanisms of action and long-term efficacy, the positive findings to date serve to highlight promising avenues for future research.
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TLDR
While high energy intake increases BC risk, caloric restriction could be protective, in combination with regular physical activity, could be a good strategy for BC prevention.
When less may be more: calorie restriction and response to cancer therapy
TLDR
Findings from preclinical studies of CR mimetic drugs and other dietary interventions, such as the ketogenic diet, are promising for improving the efficacy of anticancer therapies and reducing the side effects of cytotoxic treatments.
Effect of Intermittent versus Chronic Calorie Restriction on Tumor Incidence: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Animal Studies
TLDR
The evidence suggests that ICR exerts greater anticancer effect in genetically engineered mouse models but weaker cancer prevention benefit in chemically induced rat models as compared to CCR.
Energy restriction and the prevention of breast cancer – CORRIGENDUM
On page 264 (column 2, paragraph 2, lines 14–18) the text: A different Swedish study reported decreased preand post-menopausal breast cancer incidence compared with the background population of
Calorie Restriction and Cancer Prevention: Established and Emerging Mechanisms
TLDR
Findings on the biological mechanisms underlying many of the anticancer effects of CR, with emphasis on the role of inflammatory processes and growth factor signaling as well as vascular perturbations, autophagy, and sirtuins represent targets for translating CR research into effective cancer prevention strategies in humans.
Calorie restriction and cancer prevention: a mechanistic perspective
TLDR
Findings on the biological mechanisms underlying many of the anticancer effects of CR are synthesized, with emphasis on the impact of CR on growth factor signaling pathways, inflammation, cellular and systemic energy homeostasis pathways, vascular perturbations, and the tumor microenvironment.
Risk determination and prevention of breast cancer
TLDR
Recent data is summarized on newer approaches to risk prediction, available approaches to prevention, how new approaches may be made, and the difficult problem of using what the authors already know to prevent breast cancer in populations.
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