Energy-minimizing kinematics in hovering insect flight

  title={Energy-minimizing kinematics in hovering insect flight},
  author={Gordon J. Berman and Z. Jane Wang},
We investigate aspects of hovering insect flight by finding the optimal wing kinematics which minimize power consumption while still providing enough lift to maintain a time-averaged constant altitude over one flapping period. In particular, we study the flight of three insects whose masses vary by approximately three orders of magnitude: fruitfly (Drosophila melanogaster), bumblebee (Bombus terrestris), and hawkmoth (Manduca sexta). Here, we model an insect wing as a rigid body with three… CONTINUE READING
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