Energy expenditure for thermoregulation and locomotion in emperor penguins.

@article{Pinshow1976EnergyEF,
  title={Energy expenditure for thermoregulation and locomotion in emperor penguins.},
  author={Berry Pinshow and M. A. Fedak and D R Battles and Knut Schmidt-Nielsen},
  journal={The American journal of physiology},
  year={1976},
  volume={231 3},
  pages={
          903-12
        }
}
During the antarctic winter emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) spend up to four mo fasting while they breed at rookeries 80 km or more from the sea, huddling close together in the cold. This breeding cycle makes exceptional demands on their energy reserves, and we therefore studied their thermoregulation and locomotion. Rates of metabolism were measured in five birds (mean body mass, 23.37 kg) at ambient temperatures ranging from 25 to -47 degrees C. Between 20 and -10 degrees C the… CONTINUE READING

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