Energy expenditure for thermoregulation and locomotion in emperor penguins.

@article{Pinshow1976EnergyEF,
  title={Energy expenditure for thermoregulation and locomotion in emperor penguins.},
  author={Berry Pinshow and Michael A. Fedak and Dakota Battles and Knut Schmidt-Nielsen},
  journal={The American journal of physiology},
  year={1976},
  volume={231 3},
  pages={
          903-12
        }
}
During the antarctic winter emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) spend up to four mo fasting while they breed at rookeries 80 km or more from the sea, huddling close together in the cold. This breeding cycle makes exceptional demands on their energy reserves, and we therefore studied their thermoregulation and locomotion. Rates of metabolism were measured in five birds (mean body mass, 23.37 kg) at ambient temperatures ranging from 25 to -47 degrees C. Between 20 and -10 degrees C the… Expand
Thermoregulation in fasting emperor penguins under natural conditions.
TLDR
Emperor penguins breed during the cold antarctic winter; the males incubate the single egg while fasting for up to 4 mo and losing some 20 kg of their body mass, higher than predicted from general metabolic equations for birds. Expand
Body temperature changes induced by huddling in breeding male emperor penguins.
TLDR
The first data on body temperature changes throughout the breeding cycle of emperor penguins is presented, suggesting that the energy savings of huddling birds is due to a metabolic depression, the extent of which depends on a reduction of body surface areas exposed to cold. Expand
Weather, microclimate, and energy costs of thermoregulation for breeding Adelie Penguins
Summary. We measured meteorological conditions and estimated the energy costs of thermoregulation for young and adult Adelie Penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) at a breeding colony near the AntarcticExpand
Weather, microclimate, and energy costs of thermoregulation for breeding Adélie Penguins
TLDR
No indication of thermal stress (i.e., conditions in which birds cannot maintain stable Tb) in adults and no indication of cold stress in any age class is observed, however, on clear, calm days when air temperature exceeds 7–10°C for several hours, downy chicks are vulnerable to lethal hyperthermia. Expand
Metabolic adaptations to long-term fasting in antarctic penguins and domestic geese
TLDR
From changes in the rate of decrease in body mass, metabolic rate and concentration of plasma fuels, it is possible to characterize three periods during long-term fasting in penguins: a rapid adaptation period, a long period of economy and finally a critical period, which also characterize the metabolic response of domestic geese to long- term fasting. Expand
Temperature regulation in emperor penguins foraging under sea ice.
TLDR
It is considered unlikely that regional hypothermia in emperor penguins leads to a significant reduction in oxygen consumption of the major organs within the abdominal core, and temperature profiles during dives are consistent with a model of regional heterothermy with conservation of core temperature, peripheral vasoconstriction, and cooling of an outer body shell. Expand
Metabolism and thermoregulation during fasting in king penguins, Aptenodytes patagonicus, in air and water.
TLDR
The temperature changes were partly reversed 24 h after refeeding in all body regions except the subcutaneous, indicating a rapid reversal to a prefasting state where body heat loss is minimal. Expand
Metabolic and insulative changes in winter- and summer-acclimatized King Penguin chicks
  • H. Barré
  • Biology
  • Journal of Comparative Physiology B
  • 2006
SummaryThe effect of photoperiod and cold on metabolic and insulative changes was investigated in winter- and summer-acclimatized King Penguin chicks under natural conditions (in subantarcticExpand
Temperature regulation during exercise in the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)
Summary1.Four adult male quails were trained to run on a treadmill. In the experiments, they ran for 10 min at speeds of 0.15, 0.27 or 0.50 m·s−1 and at ambient temperatures of 10, 20 or 30 °C. TheExpand
Energy Costs of Incubation and Moult in Petrels and Penguins
TLDR
Data support the present assumption that only about half the material lost during these fasts is fat, the rest being mainly water, and that the daily energy cost of incubation in petrels and penguins is about 1.4 times the estimated cost of basal metabolism. Expand
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TLDR
Emperor penguins breed during the cold antarctic winter; the males incubate the single egg while fasting for up to 4 mo and losing some 20 kg of their body mass, higher than predicted from general metabolic equations for birds. Expand
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