Energy drinks and caffeine-related adverse effects.

  title={Energy drinks and caffeine-related adverse effects.},
  author={Kent a. Sepkowitz},
  volume={309 3},
In 1911, under authority granted by the recently enacted Food and Drug Act, US agents seized 40 kegs and 20 barrels of Coca-Cola syrup in Chattanooga, Tennessee. The group, led by chief chemist Harvey Wiley, considered the caffeine in Coca-Cola to be a significant public health hazard (both cocaine and alcohol had been removed from the recipe in the previous decade). The case continued for years. Eventually Coca-Cola decreased the caffeine content in this product and legal action was dropped… Expand
Caffeine-Containing Energy Drinks/Shots
Some of the pharmacological and pharmaceutical issues that distinguish CEDS from traditional caffeine-containing beverages are addressed, likely to “energize” the current controversy surrounding these products. Expand
An Overview on the Constituents and Safety of Energy Beverages
More safety and efficacy research needs to be conducted to establish more fully dose safety for consumption, whether energy drinks truly benefit mental or physical performance, and which individuals should avoid them because of the potential for excess risk. Expand
Cardiovascular complications from consumption of high energy drinks: recent evidence
A Medline search of the English language literature from January 2010 to December 2013, using the terms EDs and alcohol-mixed EDs to grasp the extend of the problem of ED and AMED consumption found all the findings from the recent studies regarding the cardiovascular complications from the consumption of EDs. Expand
Impact of Energy Drinks on Health and Well-being
Strict regulations (restriction of sales, clear warning labels, capping caffeine levels) and public education may help prevent the adverse outcomes from these beverages. Expand
A Perspective on Consumption of Energy Drinks
This chapter highlights the various components of energy drinks, their safety, and gives recommendations with respect to excessive consumption of these drinks. Expand
Interpretation of the toxicological findings in a probably Energy drink intake-related fatality
The death of a 36 year-old man with a recent acute pericarditis antecedent is reported in order to illustrate this challenging situation and the observed taurine concentration in peripheral blood cannot be related to any toxic effect. Expand
Effects of energy drinks on the cardiovascular system
This paper focuses on the effect of energy drinks on the cardiovascular system and whether the current ongoing call for the products’ sales and regulation of their contents should continue. Expand
Proposed actions for the US Food and Drug Administration to implement to minimize adverse effects associated with energy drink consumption.
Policy analysis examines 3 options: capping energy drink caffeine levels, creating a public education campaign, and increasing regulatory scrutiny regarding the manufacture and labeling of energy drinks. Expand
Caffeine content in energy drinks
Convenient caffeine sources include energy drinks that are increasing in popularity among recreational and professional athletes, military personnel, young adults, and other consumers seekingExpand
Dangerous mistake: an accidental caffeine overdose
A healthy 32-year-old woman who went to the local emergency department 30 min after ingesting, accidentally, 5000 mg of anhydrous caffeine for a preworkout supplement was discharged asymptomatic with internal medicine follow-up. Expand


Caffeinated energy drinks--a growing problem.
Several studies suggest that energy drinks may serve as a gateway to other forms of drug dependence, and regulatory implications concerning labeling and advertising, and the clinical implications for children and adolescents are discussed. Expand
Toxicity of energy drinks
Although prior studies have examined the effects of caffeine in adolescents, energy drinks should be considered a novel exposure and urgent research on the safety of energy drink use in children and adolescents is mandates. Expand
Caffeine fatalities – Do sales restrictions prevent intentional intoxications?
Limiting the maximum quantity of caffeine tablets available over the counter seemed to be effective in preventing suicides because of caffeine although some time elapsed until the effect was noted. Expand
Caffeine fatalities--four case reports.
It seems to be warranted to include caffeine in the drug-screening of forensic autopsy cases, although it is not motivated from a medical point of view to sell pure caffeine over the counter. Expand
Coca-Cola, caffeine, and mental deficiency: Harry Hollingworth and the Chattanooga trial of 1911.
Although Hollingworth's research played little role in the outcome of the Coca-Cola trials, it was important as a model of sophistication in experimental design and set a standard for psychopharmacological research. Expand
Three southern food and drug cases.
  • J. H. Young
  • History, Medicine
  • The Journal of southern history
  • 1983
Three southern food and drug cases, each with very similar regulatory elements might have originated elsewhere in the nation, are spoken of in the hope that some ill-lit corners of southern history are illumine. Expand
F.D.A. posts injury data for 3 drinks
  • New York Times. November
  • 2012