Energy conditions and spacetime singularities

  title={Energy conditions and spacetime singularities},
  author={Frank Tipler},
  journal={Physical Review D},
  • F. Tipler
  • Published 15 May 1978
  • Mathematics
  • Physical Review D
In this paper, a number of theorems are proven which collectively show that singularities will occur in spacetime under weaker energy conditions than the strong energy condition. In particular, the Penrose theorem, which uses only the weak energy condition but which applies only to open universes, is extended to all closed universes which have a Cauchy surface whose universal covering manifold is not a three-sphere. Furthermore, it is shown that the strong energy condition in the Hawking… 
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