Energy band-gap engineering of graphene nanoribbons.

  title={Energy band-gap engineering of graphene nanoribbons.},
  author={Melinda Y. Han and Barbaros Ozyilmaz and Yuanbo Zhang and Philip Kim},
  journal={Physical review letters},
  volume={98 20},
We investigate electronic transport in lithographically patterned graphene ribbon structures where the lateral confinement of charge carriers creates an energy gap near the charge neutrality point. Individual graphene layers are contacted with metal electrodes and patterned into ribbons of varying widths and different crystallographic orientations. The temperature dependent conductance measurements show larger energy gaps opening for narrower ribbons. The sizes of these energy gaps are… 
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