Energy and the U.S. Economy: A Biophysical Perspective

@article{Cleveland1984EnergyAT,
  title={Energy and the U.S. Economy: A Biophysical Perspective},
  author={Cutler J. Cleveland and Robert Costanza and Charles A. S. Hall and Robert K. Kaufmann},
  journal={Science},
  year={1984},
  volume={225},
  pages={890 - 897}
}
A series of hypotheses is presented about the relation of national energy use to national economic activity (both time series and cross-sectional) which offer a different perspective from standard economics for the assessment of historical and current economic events. The analysis incorporates nearly 100 years of time series data and 3 years of cross-sectional data on 87 sectors of the United States economy. Gross national product, labor productivity, and price levels are all correlated closely… 

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