Energetics of under-water swimming in Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae)

@article{Culik2004EnergeticsOU,
  title={Energetics of under-water swimming in Ad{\'e}lie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae)},
  author={Boris Culik and Rory P. Wilson},
  journal={Journal of Comparative Physiology B},
  year={2004},
  volume={161},
  pages={285-291}
}
The energy consumption of Adélie penguins while at rest in water (8.4 W·kg-1 at 4°C) or swimming below the surface was determined using a 21 m long canal fitted with respiration chambers at each end. Penguins chose to swim 86% of the time at speeds recorded in nature. Cost of transport was lowest (7.9 J·kg-1·m-1) at 1.7–2.3 m·s-1, corresponding to a power input of 15.8 W·kg-1, and only 50% as high as previously reported. Assuming a muscle efficiency of 0.25, propulsion efficiency is 0.4 and… CONTINUE READING
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