• Corpus ID: 51853433

Energetics of Swimming and Flying in Formation

  title={Energetics of Swimming and Flying in Formation},
  • Published 2005
  • Physics
Formation movement during swimming and flying has been hypothesized to reduce an individual animal’s energy expenditure. Individuals in a formation distort the flow pattern, creating vorticity in their wake. Vorticity is produced from lifting surfaces and organized as wing tip vortices, from oscillating hydrofoils in the form of a thrust-type vortex street, and by flow separation from rigid bodies arranged as a K k h vortex street. The relative velocity induced by vorticity shed from leading… 

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