Energetically deep defect centers in vapor-phase grown zinc oxide

@article{Frank2007EnergeticallyDD,
  title={Energetically deep defect centers in vapor-phase grown zinc oxide},
  author={Th. Frank and Gerhard Dr. Pensl and R. Tena-Zaera and J. Zuniga-Perez and C. Mart{\'i}nez-Tom{\'a}s and V. Mu{\~n}oz-Sanjos{\'e} and Takeshi Ohshima and Hironobu Itoh and D. Hofmann and D. Pfisterer and J. Sann and Bernd Meyer},
  journal={Applied Physics A},
  year={2007},
  volume={88},
  pages={141-145}
}
Vapor-phase grown ZnO crystals were investigated by means of DLTS measurements. The generation of defect center E4 subsequent to annealing in different ambients was monitored. By conducting electron irradiations with energies, where either both the Zn- and O-sublattice are damaged or according to [1] only the Zn-lattice, a chemical assignment to the defect centers E4 and E3 could be accomplished. DLTS investigations of ZnO samples under illumination give evidence that E4 is a negative-U center. 

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