Netropsin binding in five duplex-dimer DNA constructs as a function of size and distance between binding sites: circular dichroism and absorption spectroscopy
Energetics of interactions occurring in the model ligand-DNA systems constituted from distamycin A (DST), netropsin (NET) and the oligomeric duplexes d(GCAAGTTGCGATATACG)d(CGTATATCGCAACTTGC)=D#1 and d(GCAAGTTGCGAAAAACG)d(CGTTTTTCGCAACTTGC)=D#2 was studied by spectropolarimetry, UV-absorption spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry. Model analysis of the measured signals was applied to describe individual and competitive binding in terms of populations of various species in the solution. Our results reveal several unprecedented ligand-DNA binding features. DST binds to the neighboring 5'-AAGTT-3' and 5'-ATATA-3' sites of D#1 statistically in a 2:1 binding mode. By contrast, its association to D#2 appears to be a 2:1 binding event only at the DST/D#2 molar ratios between 0 and 2 while its further binding to D#2 may be considered as a step-by-step binding to the unoccupied 5'-AAAAA-3' sites resulting first in DST3D#2 and finally in DST4D#2 complex formation. Competition between DST and NET binding shows that for the most part DST displaces NET from its complexes with D#1 and D#2. In contrast to the obligatory 1:1 binding of DST to the ligand-free 5'-AAAAA-3' sites observed at DST/5'-AAAAA-3' <1 the displacement of NET bound to the 5'-AAAAA-3' sites by added DST occurs even at the smallest additions of DST in a 2:1 manner. NET can also displace DST molecules but only those bound monomerically to the 5'-AAAAA-3' sites of DST3D#2. Actually, only half of these molecules can be displaced due to the simultaneous rebinding of the displaced DST to the unreacted 5'-AAAAA-3' sites in DST3D#2. Binding of DST and NET to D#1 and D#2 is an enthalpy driven process accompanied by large unfavorable (DST), small (NET) or large favorable (NET binding to 5'-AAAAA-3') entropy contributions and negative deltaCP degrees that are reasonably close to deltaCP degrees predicted from the calculated changes in solvent-accessible surface areas that accompany complex formation. Although various modes of DST and NET binding within D#1 and D#2 are characterized by significant energetic differences they seem to be governed by the same driving forces; the hydrophobic transfer of ligand from the solution into the duplex binding site and the accompanying specific non-covalent ligand-DNA and ligand-ligand interactions occurring within the DNA minor groove.