Energetic bottlenecks and other design constraints in avian annual cycles.

@article{Piersma2002EnergeticBA,
  title={Energetic bottlenecks and other design constraints in avian annual cycles.},
  author={Theunis Piersma},
  journal={Integrative and comparative biology},
  year={2002},
  volume={42 1},
  pages={51-67}
}
The flexible phenotypes of birds and mammals often appear to represent adjustments to alleviate some energetic bottleneck or another. By increasing the size of the organs involved in digestion and assimilation of nutrients (gut and liver), an individual bird can increase its ability to process nutrients, for example to quickly store fuel for onward flight. Similarly, an increase in the exercise organs (pectoral muscles and heart) enables a bird to increase its metabolic power for sustained… CONTINUE READING

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