Enemy of the (immunosuppressed) state: an update on the pathogenesis of Aspergillus fumigatus infection

  title={Enemy of the (immunosuppressed) state: an update on the pathogenesis of Aspergillus fumigatus infection},
  author={Ronen Ben-Ami and Russell E. Lewis and Dimitrios P. Kontoyiannis},
  journal={British Journal of Haematology},
Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic filamentous fungus that is currently the most frequent cause of invasive fungal disease in immunosuppressed individuals. Recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of invasive aspergillosis have highlighted the multifactorial nature of A. fumigatus virulence and the complex interplay between host and microbial factors. In this review, we outline current concepts of immune recognition and evasion, angioinvasion and angiogenesis, secondary… 

Immunoprotection versus immunopathogenesis associated with Aspergillus fumigatus exposure

Using mouse models, contributing factors of host defense in IA and fungal asthma induced by A. fumigatus are investigated to find out if these factors contribute to invasive aspergillosis within the lungs.

Current understanding of PTX3 protective activity on Aspergillus fumigatus infection.

The current understanding of PTX3 mechanisms of action that might be of help in further exploration of the pharmacological activity of this protein against A. fumigatus are reviewed.

Aspergillosis in Avian Species: A Review

The review presents the current knowledge on avian aspergillosis, though in brief due to journal space limitations, from etiology, pathology, diagnosis to treatment and con trol.

Immunogenetic Variability Associated with Different Susceptibility Patterns to Candida and Aspergillus Infections

The aim of this review is to address the findings of recent studies associating genetic factors with susceptibility to fungal infections, focusing on the most common opportunistic fungi, Candida and Aspergillus species.

Angiogenesis at the mold-host interface: a potential key to understanding and treating invasive aspergillosis.

  • R. Ben-Ami
  • Biology, Medicine
    Future microbiology
  • 2013
This review summarizes the emerging roles of vasculopathy and angiogenesis in the pathogenesis of IA, emphasizing the importance of the underlying mode of immunosuppression.

An overview of aspergillosis in poultry: A review

Treatment of aspergillosis is ineffective and prevention is the only way to control the disease, so best managemental practices like sanitation, avoiding wet litter or soil and dusty or moldy feeds, adequate ventilation, and disinfection of feed and waterlines should be carried out.

Immune modulators as adjuncts for the prevention and treatment of invasive fungal infections.

Invasive fungal diseases are increasingly important opportunistic infections that are intimately linked to immune-suppression in the context of cytotoxic treatment of neoplastic diseases, stem cell

First Line of Defense: Innate Cell-Mediated Control of Pulmonary Aspergillosis

Current understanding of host-fungi interactions with a focus on mechanisms of innate cell-mediated recognition and control of pulmonary aspergillosis is summarized.

Interaction of the pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus with lung epithelial cells

The experimental findings suggest that lung epithelial cells are more than just “innocent bystanders” or a purely physical barrier against infection, and can be better described as an active extension of the innate immune system, operating as a surveillance mechanism that can specifically identify fungal spores and activate an offensive response to block infection.

Acquiring accidental aspergillosis

A unique case of an immunocompetent individual diagnosed with primary cutaneous aspergillosis two weeks after trauma and subsequent surgery is presented.



Harnessing calcineurin as a novel anti-infective agent against invasive fungal infections

This Review summarizes the current understanding of calcineurin biology in these fungal species, and its exciting potential role in treating invasive fungal infections.

Differences in Patterns of Infection and Inflammation for Corticosteroid Treatment and Chemotherapy in Experimental Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis

It is found that IPA pathogenesis involved predominantly fungal development in mice treated by chemotherapy and an adverse host response in mice treating with a corticosteroid, and previously unrecognized differences should be taken into account.

Pathophysiology of pulmonary aspergillosis

  • K. ShibuyaT. Ando H. Nonaka
  • Medicine, Biology
    Journal of infection and chemotherapy : official journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
  • 2004
Computed tomography images accurately mirror the histological features of the lesion that can be recognized as a phenotypical representation of pathophysiology of Aspergillus infection, and this is confirmed by the reports emphasizing the importance of CT scans to identify hallmark clinical signs and symptoms of the disease.

LaeA, a Regulator of Morphogenetic Fungal Virulence Factors

It is shown that an A. fumigatus mutation in a developmentally expressed transcriptional regulator (ΔlaeA) coordinating morphological and chemical differentiation reduces virulence in a murine model; impaired virulence is associated with decreased levels of pulmonary gliotoxin and multiple changes in conidial and hyphal susceptibility to host phagocytes ex vivo.

The alkaline protease of Aspergillus fumigatus is not a virulence determinant in two murine models of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

It is concluded that AFAlp is not a virulence determinant in these models of IPA, and elastin breakdown was detected in lung tissue from animals inoculated with all four strains.

In Vitro Interactions between Antifungals and Immunosuppressants against Aspergillus fumigatus Isolates from Transplant and Nontransplant Patients

In vitro antifungal checkerboard testing on Aspergillus fumigatus clinical isolates was not able to detect a difference in calcineurin inhibitor antif fungus activity against isolates from transplant recipients and nontransplant patients.

Calcineurin Controls Growth, Morphology, and Pathogenicity in Aspergillus fumigatus

The results support the clinical observation that substantially decreasing fungal growth can prevent disease establishment and decrease mortality and reveal that calcineurin appears to play a globally conserved role in the virulence of several pathogenic fungi and yet plays specialized roles in each and can be an excellent target for therapeutic intervention.

Cutaneous Model of Invasive Aspergillosis

A nonlethal murine cutaneous model of cutaneous invasive aspergillosis is developed that accurately reflected alterations in A. fumigatus pathogenicity resulting from deletions of recognized virulence genes and should be applicable to comparative studies of the pathogenesis, treatment, and tissue specificity of IA.

Isolation and characterization of a pigmentless-conidium mutant of Aspergillus fumigatus with altered conidial surface and reduced virulence

The results suggest that the conidium pigment or a structural feature related to it contributes to fungal resistance against host defense mechanisms in A. fumigatus infections.

Activation of Platelets by Aspergillus fumigatus and Potential Role of Platelets in the Immunopathogenesis of Aspergillosis

It is found that A. fumigatus is a potent inducer of platelet-mediated inflammation, potentially promoting protective as well as harmful responses during aspergillosis.