Enduring consequences of early experiences: 40 year effects on survival and success among African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

Abstract

Growth from conception to reproductive onset in African elephants (Loxodonta africana) provides insights into phenotypic plasticity, individual adaptive plastic responses and facultative maternal investment. Using growth for 867 and life histories for 2652 elephants over 40 years, we demonstrate that maternal inexperience plus drought in early life result… (More)
DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2013.0011

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@article{Lee2013EnduringCO, title={Enduring consequences of early experiences: 40 year effects on survival and success among African elephants (Loxodonta africana).}, author={Phyllis C Lee and Luc F. Bussi{\`e}re and C. Elizabeth Webber and Joyce H. Poole and Cynthia J. Moss}, journal={Biology letters}, year={2013}, volume={9 2}, pages={20130011} }