To improve the utility of mammary ductoscopy, we investigated the correlation between endoscopic findings and histologic findings using intraductal biopsy specimens. Seventy-one intraductal biopsy specimens obtained from 63 patients between October 2001 and March 2004 were analyzed retrospectively. All specimens were obtained from monotonous intraductal lesions immediately after observation by mammary ductoscopy and were composed of a pure histologic subtype. With regard to endoscopic findings, color was classified as yellow, red, white, or colorless, and morphology was classified as spherical, lobular, mulberry, or amorphous. The histologic subtype was classified as papillotubular, papillary, degenerated, papillary cancer, solid-type ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), or cribriform cancer. The relationship between histologic diagnosis, color, and morphology was investigated. Intraductal biopsy specimens included 25 specimens of carcinoma and 46 specimens of papilloma. There was no significant correlation between color and diagnosis. Fourteen of 25 carcinoma specimens were amorphous, and amorphous morphology was significantly suggestive of malignancy (p < 0.001). Further, cribriform cancer was associated with amorphous morphology and yellow color. Morphology may be a useful endoscopically delineated parameter for differentiating intraductal lesions.