Endopterygote systematics – where do we stand and what is the goal (Hexapoda, Arthropoda)?

@article{Beutel2006EndopterygoteS,
  title={Endopterygote systematics – where do we stand and what is the goal (Hexapoda, Arthropoda)?},
  author={Rolf G. Beutel and Hans Pohl},
  journal={Systematic Entomology},
  year={2006},
  volume={31}
}
Abstract.  Impressive progress has been made recently in the systematics of holometabolous insects. Nevertheless, important questions remain controversial, and uncertainties concerning the relationships of major lineages may even have increased. New analytical techniques have been developed and an immense wealth of molecular data has accumulated. Although no decisive breakthrough has yet been achieved, recent analyses of large molecular datasets have contributed greatly to the reconstruction of… 
9-Genes Reinforce the Phylogeny of Holometabola and Yield Alternate Views on the Phylogenetic Placement of Strepsiptera
TLDR
The results unequivocally support the monophyly of Neuropteroidea, but recover Strepsiptera either derived from within polyphagan beetles (order Coleoptera), or in a position sister to Neuropterida.
Morphological and molecular evidence converge upon a robust phylogeny of the megadiverse Holometabola
TLDR
It is argued that even in the “age of phylogenomics”, comparative morphology will still play a vital role and is essential for reconstructing major evolutionary transformations at the phenotypic level, for testing evolutionary scenarios, and for placing fossil taxa.
A phylogenomic approach to resolve the basal pterygote divergence.
TLDR
The comprehensive molecular data set developed here provides conclusive support for odonates as the most basal winged insect order (Chiastomyaria hypothesis) and data quality assessment indicates that proteins involved in cellular processes and signaling harbor the most informative phylogenetic signal.
Advances in insect phylogeny at the dawn of the postgenomic era.
TLDR
A review of the current consensus of insect relationships provides a foundation for comparative study and offers a framework to evaluate incoming genomic evidence.
Phylogenetics and temporal diversification of the earliest true flies (Insecta: Diptera) based on multiple nuclear genes
TLDR
Relationships among families of the lower Diptera (formerly suborder ‘Nematocera’) are resolved using sequence data from four nuclear markers, including both ribosomal (28S rDNA) and protein‐coding (CAD, TPI and PGD) genes, and the results support both novel and traditional arrangements.
The evolutionary history of holometabolous insects inferred from transcriptome-based phylogeny and comprehensive morphological data
TLDR
The combination of well-resolved phylogenies obtained by phylogenomic analyses and well-documented extensive morphological datasets is an appropriate basis for reconstructing complex morphological transformations and for the inference of evolutionary histories.
Single-copy nuclear genes resolve the phylogeny of the holometabolous insects
TLDR
Evidence from nucleotide sequences of six single-copy nuclear protein coding genes used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and estimate evolutionary divergence times is presented, finding strong support for a close relationship between Coleoptera (beetles) and Strepsiptera, a previously proposed, but analytically controversial relationship.
Goodbye Halteria? The thoracic morphology of Endopterygota (Insecta) and its phylogenetic implications
TLDR
The phylogenetic reconstruction using characters of the thorax is impeded by functional constraints, parallel losses, a general trend to reinforce the skeleton and to simplify the muscular apparatus, and also by different specializations occurring in potential outgroup taxa.
100 years Zoraptera : a phantom in insect evolution and the history of its investigation
TLDR
A species-level phylogeny and more investigations of the reproductive system should have high priority and a clade Zoraptera + Dermaptera as sister group of all other polyneopteran orders is tentatively suggested.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 256 REFERENCES
Shifts in hexapod diversification and what Haldane could have said
  • P. Mayhew
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 2002
TLDR
The results suggest that any Creator had a fondness for a much more inclusive clade than the Coleoptera, definitely as large as the Eumetabola (Holometabola plus bugs and their relatives), and possibly asLarge as the entire Neoptera.
Relationships of extant lower Brachycera (Diptera): a quantitative synthesis of morphological characters
TLDR
The results show that all infraorders of Brachycera are monophyletic, but there is little evidence for relationships between the infra Orders.
The phylogenetic position of the enigmatic wasp family Heterogynaidae based on molecular data, with description of a new, nocturnal species (Hymenoptera: Apoidea)
TLDR
The higher level phylogeny of the Apoidea based on sequence data of a nuclear gene, long‐wavelength (LW) opsin, is analysed for the first time and implies that Heterogynaidae may not have originated from a basal node within Apoides, and that the character states presumed to be plesiomorphies may instead be homoplasies.
The phylogeny of Strepsiptera (Hexapoda)
TLDR
This investigation is the first cladistic analysis to use more than fourfold as many characters as any prior study, and a broader sampling of taxa, to provide evolutionary interpretations of Strepsiptera.
Time flies, a new molecular time-scale for brachyceran fly evolution without a clock.
TLDR
Divergence times based on the 28S rDNA and several fossil constraints indicate that the Brachycera originated in the late Triassic or earliest Mesozoic and that all major lower brachyceran fly lineages had near contemporaneous origins in the mid-Jurassic prior to the origin of flowering plants.
Phylogeny of caddisflies (Insecta, Trichoptera)
TLDR
Equally and differentially weighted parsimony analyses were conducted in order to present a phylogeny of Trichoptera, including 43 of 45 families, which closely resembles that proposed by Herbert Ross with respect to the relationships among suborders, with a monophyletic Annulipalpia at the base of the tree, and a clade consisting of Spicipalpia plus a monopyletic IntegripalPia.
The phylogeny of the Histeroidea (Coleoptera: Staphyliniformia)
TLDR
This study is the first to utilize either larval or molecular (18S rDNA) data in combination with adult morphology in an attempt to resolve the phylogeny of the Histeridae, finding the cylindrical, subcortical forms of the family to be the most primitive.
The Phylogeny of the Extant Hexapod Orders
TLDR
A well‐resolved and robust cladogram of ordinal relationships is produced with the topology of crustacea.
Phylogeny of hydradephagan water beetles inferred from 18S rRNA sequences.
TLDR
Full-length 18S rRNA sequence for 84 species of Hydradephaga is presented, including representatives of most major groups down to the tribal level, and a total of 68 species of the largest family, Dytiscidae, indicating a single colonization of the aquatic medium.
The systematic position of Aspidytidae, the diversification of Dytiscoidea (Coleoptera, Adephaga) and the phylogenetic signal of third codon positions
TLDR
There was a significant increase in the diversification rate at the base of the richest families (Noteridae and Dytiscidae), which could be associated with the development of simultaneous stroke and higher swimming performance, although data on the swimming behaviour of some basal groups of Noteridae are incomplete.
...
...