Endogenous opioids and smoking: a review of progress and problems.

  title={Endogenous opioids and smoking: a review of progress and problems.},
  author={Ovide F. Pomerleau},
  volume={23 2},
The present report examines efforts to elucidate the role of opioid mechanisms in the reinforcement of smoking. A number of approaches have been used to evaluate nicotine-opioid interactions. Opiate agonists such as heroin or methadone have been found to increase cigarette smoking reliably in humans, and morphine has been shown to increase the potency and efficacy of nicotine in rats. There is also an extensive literature documenting the nicotine-stimulated release of endogenous opioids in… CONTINUE READING


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