Endogenous opioid system in addiction and addiction-related behaviors

  title={Endogenous opioid system in addiction and addiction-related behaviors},
  author={Brian Reed and Eduardo R Butelman and Mary Jeanne Kreek},
  journal={Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences},
Current status of opioid addiction treatment and related preclinical research
Two effective treatments for opioid addiction, methadone and buprenorphine-naloxone maintenance, should be widely implemented and novel analgesic medicines with new neurobiological targets with reduced abuse potential, reduced toxicity, and improved effectiveness are developed, especially for chronic pain states other than cancer pain.
The Cholinergic System as a Treatment Target for Opioid Use Disorder
Clinical and preclinical studies suggest that medications such as cholinesterase inhibitors and scopolamine, which target components of the cholinergic system, show promise for the treatment of OUD and further investigations are warranted.
Risk for opioid misuse in chronic pain patients is associated with endogenous opioid system dysregulation
This study links human in vivo MOR system functional measures to the development of addictive disorders and provides novel evidence that MORs and µ-opioid system responsivity may underlie risk to misuse opioids among chronic pain patients.
PET imaging reveals lower kappa opioid receptor availability in alcoholics but no effect of age
It is found that KOR availability does not change with age, and findings of lower VT in AD versus HC in multiple regions are in contrast to findings in the mu and delta opioid receptor systems of higher VT inAD versus HC.
Acute tramadol enhances brain activity associated with reward anticipation in the nucleus accumbens
Tramadol enhances the reward system and thereby may have abuse potential or precipitate drug abuse in human using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess the potential of tramadol for drug abuse or dependence.
Chronic Kidney Disease-Associated Itch (CKD-aI) in Children—A Narrative Review
A narrative review aims to describe various aspects of CKD-aI with an emphasis on children, based on the available data in this population and the data extrapolated from adults, focusing on the growing role of uraemic toxins (UTs).


The genetics of the opioid system and specific drug addictions
The genetics of the major genes of the opioid system (opioid receptors and their endogenous ligands) in connection to addiction to opioids, cocaine, alcohol and methamphetamines are described.
Structure of the δ-opioid receptor bound to naltrindole
The crystal structure of the mouse δ-OR, bound to the subtype-selective antagonist naltrindole, provides a structural explanation and validation for the ‘message–address’ model of opioid receptor pharmacology, in which distinct ‘ message’ and ‘ address’ determinants are contained within a single ligand.
Mouse model of OPRM1 (A118G) polymorphism has sex-specific effects on drug-mediated behavior
This work derived a mouse model possessing the equivalent nucleotide/amino acid substitution in the Oprm1 gene and found sex-specific reductions in the rewarding properties of morphine and the aversive components of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal.
Genetics of Opiate Addiction
This review focuses primarily on association studies of heroin and opiate addiction, and further describes the studies which have been replicated in this field, and are thus more likely to be useful for translational efforts.
Continuous delivery of naltrexone and nalmefene leads to tolerance in reducing alcohol drinking and to supersensitivity of brain opioid receptors
The results prove the efficacy of repeated injections over infused opioid antagonists in reducing alcohol drinking and support the as‐needed dosing practice, rather than the standard continual dosing, in the treatment of alcoholism with opioid receptor antagonists.
Single-nucleotide polymorphism in the human mu opioid receptor gene alters beta-endorphin binding and activity: possible implications for opiate addiction.
  • C. Bond, K. Laforge, L. Yu
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1998
Results show that SNPs in the mu opioid receptor gene can alter binding and signal transduction in the resulting receptor and may have implications for normal physiology, therapeutics, and vulnerability to develop or protection from diverse diseases including the addictive diseases.
Morphine Side Effects in β-Arrestin 2 Knockout Mice
Surprisingly, the genetic disruption of opioid receptor regulation, while enhancing and prolonging analgesia, dramatically attenuates the respiratory suppression and acute constipation caused by morphine.