Endogenous ligands of Toll-like receptors.

  title={Endogenous ligands of Toll-like receptors.},
  author={Min-fu Tsan and Baochong Gao},
  journal={Journal of leukocyte biology},
  volume={76 3},
Extensive work has suggested that a number of endogenous molecules such as heat shock proteins (hsp) may be potent activators of the innate immune system capable of inducing proinflammatory cytokine production by the monocyte-macrophage system and the activation and maturation of dendritic cells. The cytokine-like effects of these endogenous molecules are mediated via the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signal-transduction pathways in a manner similar to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; via TLR4) and… CONTINUE READING
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