Endocrine treatment of transsexual persons: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline.

  title={Endocrine treatment of transsexual persons: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline.},
  author={Wylie C. Hembree and Peggy T Cohen-Kettenis and Henriette A. Delemarre-van de Waal and Louis J Gooren and Walter J. Meyer and Norman Spack and Vin Tangpricha and Victor M. Montori},
  journal={The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism},
  volume={94 9},
OBJECTIVE The aim was to formulate practice guidelines for endocrine treatment of transsexual persons. EVIDENCE This evidence-based guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to describe the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence, which was low or very low. CONSENSUS PROCESS Committees and members of The Endocrine Society, European Society of Endocrinology, European Society for Paediatric… 

Endocrine treatment of transsexual persons: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline: commentary from a European perspective.

These guidelines are structured to provide evidence-based suggestions or, where evidence is lacking, expert recommendations on diagnostic procedures and hormonal treatment in adolescent and adult transsexuals, including long-term care and eligibility for surgery.


  • W. HembreeP. Cohen-Kettenis G. T’Sjoen
  • Medicine
    Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • 2017
This evidence-based guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach to describe the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence about the effect of sex steroids on bone health in transgender individuals.

Endocrine treatment of transsexual persons: extensive personal experience.

  • M. LeinungMarco UrizarN. PatelS. C. Sood
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • 2013
Transsexual persons seeking hormonal therapy are being seen with increasing frequency and starting therapy at an earlier age may lessen the negative impact on mental health and lead to improved social outcomes, but significant barriers exist, such as insufficient insurance coverage, which limit comprehensive care.

Coordination of healthcare for transsexual persons: a multidisciplinary approach

The experience in Spain concerning the public healthcare for transsexual persons is described using a multidisciplinary approach and to review the relevant literature.

Endocrine Treatment of Gender‐Dysphoric/Gender‐Incongruent Persons: An Endocrine Society* Clinical Practice Guideline

This evidence‐based guideline recommends treating gender‐dysphoric/gender‐incongruent adolescents who have entered puberty at Tanner Stage G2/B2 by suppression with gonadotropin‐releasing hormone agonists and recommends adding gender‐affirming hormones after a multidisciplinary team has confirmed the persistence of gender dysphoria/gender incongruence.

- 1The endocrine treatment of transsexual adolescents

Hormonal treatment in transsexual adolescents may avoid the development of or a worsening of psychiatric co-morbidity, leads to superior cosmetic results, and is therefore strongly indicated.

Endocrine treatment of transsexuals: assessment of cardiovascular risk factors

  • M. Nakatsuka
  • Medicine
    Expert review of endocrinology & metabolism
  • 2010
In many countries, people with GID are treated according to the Standards of Care (SOC) 6th version of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH), formerly known as the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association (HBIGDA) a professional organization devoted to the understanding and treatment of gender identity disorders.

Safety of hormonal treatment in transgenders

Treatment must be highly individualized and transitioning patients need to be engaged in a ‘clinical contract’ with the physician in order to ensure compliance with prescribed treatments.

[Clinical practice guidelines for assessment and treatment of transsexualism. SEEN Identity and Sexual Differentiation Group (GIDSEEN)].




Endocrine treatment of transsexual people: a review of treatment regimens, outcomes, and adverse effects.

The range of treatment used by transsexual people, the rationale behind these, and the expectation from such treatment are discussed, as well as the potential adverse effects of cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual people.

Endocrinologic treatment of gender identity disorders.

Physicians caring for patients with transsexualism should have a general knowledge about the diagnosis, available treatment, and monitoring for complications of hormonal therapy.

The treatment of adolescent transsexuals: changing insights.

The pros and cons of the various approaches to youngsters with GID are presented, hopefully inciting a sound scientific discussion of the issue.

Testosterone therapy in adult men with androgen deficiency syndromes: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline.

The Task Force recommends testosterone therapy for symptomatic men with androgen deficiency, who have low testosterone levels, to induce and maintain secondary sex characteristics and to improve their sexual function, sense of well-being, muscle mass and strength, and bone mineral density.

Clinical management of gender identity disorder in adolescents: a protocol on psychological and paediatric endocrinology aspects

Preliminary findings suggest that a decrease in height velocity and bone maturation occurs, and GnRHa treatment appears to be an important contribution to the clinical management of gender identity disorder in transsexual adolescents.

The endocrinology of transsexualism: A review and commentary

  • L. Gooren
  • Biology, Psychology
  • 1990

Association between polycystic ovary syndrome and female-to-male transsexuality.

FTM transsexual patients have a high prevalence of PCOS and hyperandrogenaemia, and insulin resistance was associated with obesity but not with PCOS, in contrast, hyperandregenaemia wasassociated with bothPCOS and obesity.

Physical and hormonal evaluation of transsexual patients: A longitudinal study

Based on the data generated by this study, it is recommended as hormonal therapy 0.1–0.5 mg/day of ethinyl estradiol or 7.5–10 mg/ day of conjugated estrogen for male-to-female transsexuals, and intramuscular testosterone cypionate, 200 mg every 2 weeks, for female- to-male transsexuals.

Long-term treatment of transsexuals with cross-sex hormones: extensive personal experience.

Cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexuals seems acceptably safe over the short and medium term, but solid clinical data are lacking.

Hormone Treatment of the Adult Transsexual Patient

  • L. Gooren
  • Medicine, Biology
    Hormone Research in Paediatrics
  • 2005
The goal of treatment in female-to-male transsexuals is to induce virilization, including a male pattern of sexual hair, a male voice and male physical contours, and to stop menses.