It is well known that oral administration of camostate induces hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the rat pancreas. It is not clear, however, whether pancreatic hormone and enzyme secretion are affected by camostate treatment. In rats, daily administration of 200 mg camostate/kg b. wt for 14 days significantly increased pancreatic weight and pancreatic content of DNA, protein, amylase, lipase, trypsin and chymotrypsin, as well as the amount of insulin, glucagon and somatostatin. In the intact animal, blood glucose levels and serum concentrations of insulin and glucagon in response to an oral glucose load were not impaired after camostate treatment. In the isolated perfused pancreas, however, insulin and glucagon secretions were reduced, whereas somatostatin release was not affected. The volume of pancreatic juice produced by the unstimulated isolated perfused organ, as well as protein and enzyme secretion, were increased after camostate treatment. Likewise, the isolated perfused pancreas from camostate-treated rats secreted a larger volume of pancreatic juice and more protein in response to cholecystokinin (CCK), while enzyme secretion was affected in a non-parallel manner: amylase release was markedly reduced, lipase release was unchanged, and release of trypsin and chymotrypsin was increased.