Endocannabinoids and Food Intake: Newborn Suckling and Appetite Regulation in Adulthood

  title={Endocannabinoids and Food Intake: Newborn Suckling and Appetite Regulation in Adulthood},
  author={Ester Fride and T Bregman and Tim C. Kirkham},
  journal={Experimental Biology and Medicine},
  pages={225 - 234}
The appetite-stimulating effects of the cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa) have been known since ancient times, and appear to be effected through the incentive and rewarding properties of foods. Investigations into the biological basis of the multiple effects of cannabis have yielded important breakthroughs in recent years: the discovery of two cannabinoid receptors in brain and peripheral organ systems, and endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids) for these receptors. These advances have greatly… 

Cannabinoids and appetite: Food craving and food pleasure

  • T. Kirkham
  • Biology
    International review of psychiatry
  • 2009
Some of the findings of the past decade that link endocannabinoid function appetite control, and the possible clinical applications of that knowledge are outlined.

Endocannabinoids in the regulation of appetite and body weight

  • T. Kirkham
  • Biology, Medicine
    Behavioural pharmacology
  • 2005
It is now confirmed that endocannabinoids, acting at brain CB1 cannabinoid receptors, stimulate appetite and ingestive behaviours, partly through interactions with more established orexigenic and anorexigenic signals.

The endocannabinoid-CB receptor system: a new player in the brain-gut-adipose field

TheECBR system is a major mediator between the brain and the alimentary system, and possibly, the adipose tissue, and the role of the ECBR system in adult regulation of food processing is a remnant of its critical role for the initiation of feeding in the newborn.

Potential Metabolic and Behavioural Roles of the Putative Endo-
cannabinoid Receptors GPR18, GPR55 and GPR119 in Feeding

The present review attempts to summarize the lines of evidence supporting the potential role of GPR18, GPR55 and GPR119 in metabolism and feeding control that may explain some of the divergent effects and puzzling data re-lated to cannabinoid research.

Gastrointestinal Regulation of Food Intake: General Aspects and Focus on Anandamide and Oleoylethanolamide

The gastrointestinal tract plays a pivotal role in the regulation of food intake and energy balance and recent evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid anandamide and the related acylethanolamide oleoylethanol ammonia are produced in the intestine and might regulate feeding behaviour by engaging sensory afferent neurones that converge information to specific areas of the brain.

Cannabinoids enhance gastric X/A-like cells activity.

Results indicate that stimulation of appetite exerted by cannabinoids may be connected with an increase of ghrelin secretion from gastric X/A-like cells.

Role of neuropeptides in appetite regulation and obesity – A review

Epigenetic regulation of the cannabinoid receptor CB1 in an activity-based rat model of anorexia nervosa.

The transcriptional regulation of the endocannabinoid system, an interesting target for body weight maintenance and the control of food intake and energy balance, supports a possible role for Cnr1 in the ABA animal model of anorexia nervosa.

Molecular Mechanisms of Appetite Regulation

Physiological mechanisms of appetite regulation are reviewed, including gut hormones, endocannabinoid system and nutrients, which are involved in the physiological regulation of food intake.

The endogenous cannabinoid system in the control of food intake and energy balance

The mechanism by which marijuana exerts its pharmacological actions increased considerably following the identification in the early 1990s of the sites of action of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors and, subsequently, of the endocannabinoids.



Leptin-regulated endocannabinoids are involved in maintaining food intake

It is shown that following temporary food restriction, CB1 receptor knockout mice eat less than their wild-type littermates, and the CB1 antagonist SR141716A reduces food intake in wild- type but not knockout mice, which indicates that endocannabinoids in the hypothalamus may tonically activate CB1 receptors to maintain food intake and form part of the neural circuitry regulated by leptin.

Cannabinoids and Feeding: The Role of the Endogenous Cannabinoid System as a Trigger for Newborn Suckling

Evidence is presented supporting a critical role for CB 1 receptors in survival of mouse pups and suggests that the endocannabinoid-CB 1 receptor system is unique in its absolute control over the initiation of the neonatal milk suckling response.

Endocannabinoid levels in rat limbic forebrain and hypothalamus in relation to fasting, feeding and satiation: stimulation of eating by 2‐arachidonoyl glycerol

These findings provide the first direct evidence of altered brain levels of endocannabinoids, and of 2‐AG in particular, during fasting and feeding, and supports a role for endoc cannabinoidoids in the control of appetitive motivation.

The endogenous cannabinoid system affects energy balance via central orexigenic drive and peripheral lipogenesis.

It is shown that the lack of CB1 in mice with a disrupted CB1 gene causes hypophagia and leanness, and the cannabinoid system is an essential endogenous regulator of energy homeostasis via central orexigenic as well as peripheral lipogenic mechanisms and might therefore represent a promising target to treat diseases characterized by impaired energy balance.

The endocannabinoid-CB(1) receptor system in pre- and postnatal life.

  • E. Fride
  • Biology, Medicine
    European journal of pharmacology
  • 2004

Anandamide administration into the ventromedial hypothalamus stimulates appetite in rats

It is demonstrated that intrahypothalamic anandamide initiates appetite by stimulation of CB1 receptors, thus providing evidence on the involvement of hypothalamic endocannabinoids in appetite initiation.