Encystment and excystment of kinetoplastid Azumiobodo hoyamushi, causal agent of soft tunic syndrome in ascidian aquaculture.

  title={Encystment and excystment of kinetoplastid Azumiobodo hoyamushi, causal agent of soft tunic syndrome in ascidian aquaculture.},
  author={Akatsuki Nawata and E. Hirose and S. Kitamura and A. Kumagai},
  journal={Diseases of aquatic organisms},
  volume={115 3},
Soft tunic syndrome in the edible ascidian Halocynthia roretzi is caused by the kinetoplastid flagellate Azumiobodo hoyamushi, which was found to assume a fusiform cell form with 2 flagella in axenic, pure culture. When the flagellate form was incubated in sterilized artificial seawater (pH 8.4), some of the cells became cyst-like and adhered to the bottom of the culture plate. The cyst-like forms were spherical or cuboidal, and each had 2 flagella encapsulated in its cytoplasm. Encystment was… Expand
Disinfection of fertilized eggs of the edible ascidian Halocynthia roretzi for prevention of soft tunic syndrome.
Azumiobodo hoyamushi, the causative agent of soft tunic syndrome, was likely introduced to farming sites of the edible ascidian Halocynthia roretzi via ascidian spat. The source of infection isExpand
Seasonal variation in Azumiobodo hoyamushi infection among benthic organisms in the southern coast of Korea
Among benthic organisms that inhabit the southern coast of Korea, most ascidians are susceptible to A. hoyamushi infection, and seasonal cycle of infection rates and intensities of the pathogen correspond well with the STS disappearance and onset cycle observed in ascidian farms. Expand
Measurement of Tunic Hardness in an Edible Ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi, with Remarks on Soft Tunic Syndrome
This is the first quantitative evaluation of the symptoms of soft tunic syndrome by measuring the amount of bending and the peak force required to pierce the tunic and there was a strong correlation between bending and force. Expand
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Euglenozoa: taxonomy, diversity and ecology, symbioses and viruses
An updated taxonomy of eugenozoa is presented, complemented by photos of representative species, with notes on diversity, distribution and biology of euglenozoans and a significantly modified taxonomy for kinetoplastids is proposed. Expand
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Azumiobodo hoyamushi, the kinetoplastid causing soft tunic syndrome in ascidians, may invade through the siphon wall.
Infection tests using diseased tunics demonstrated that juvenile individuals never developed soft tunic syndrome, but all individuals in the other age groups showed the disease symptoms, and the damaged tunic in the siphon wall could be an entrance for A. hoyamushi into the tunic of adult hosts. Expand
Soft tunic syndrome in the edible ascidian Halocynthia roretzi is caused by a kinetoplastid protist.
Results indicate that the flagellate is the causative agent of soft tunic syndrome. Expand
Mass mortality of cultured ascidians Halocynthia roretzi associated with softening of the tunic and flagellate-like cells.
Results indicate that the mass mortalities of ascidians accompanied by abnormally softened tunics were caused by an infectious agent, and suggest the involvement of the flagellate-like cells in the disease. Expand
Detection of the kinetoplastid Azumiobodo hoyamushi, the causative agent of soft tunic syndrome, in wild ascidians Halocynthia roretzi.
It is suggested that soft tunic syndrome affects the wild population of ascidians in Japan by immersing tunic samples from diseased wild Ascidians into the rearing water using pathogen-free water. Expand
Azumiobodo hoyamushi gen. nov. et sp. nov. (Euglenozoa, Kinetoplastea, Neobodonida): a pathogenic kinetoplastid causing the soft tunic syndrome in ascidian aquaculture.
A phylogenetic tree based on 18S rRNA gene sequences indicated that a pathogenic kinetoplastid isolated from a diseased edible ascidian Halocynthia roretzi with soft tunic syndrome belongs to the order Neobodonida, although it forms an independent clade in this order. Expand
Regeneration of the tunic cuticle in the compound ascidian, Botrylloides simodensis.
Fiber formation occurred even in fragments of colonial margins that were incubated in a bottle of seawater, and was inhibited under some experimental conditions including low pH and the presence of some proteases or protease inhibitors. Expand
Ultrastructure of cyst formation inBlastocrithidia familiaris inLygaeus pandurus (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae)
This report is the first known ultrastructural description of encystment in a phytophagous hemipteran and in a naturally infected host. Expand
The kinetoplastid parasite Azumiobodo hoyamushi, the causative agent of soft tunic syndrome of the sea squirt Halocynthia roretzi, resides in the East Sea of Korea.
The identification here of A. hoyamushi as the causative agent of soft tunic syndrome and findings regarding its optimum growth conditions should lead to methods for reducing the incidence of STS. Expand
It is suggested that C. hirundinella has both a resting cyst, forming part of the life cycle, and a temporary cyst stage, which is less resistant to decay and do not show the reorganization of cell contents for dormancy. Expand
Tunic morphology and viral surveillance in diseased Korean ascidians: Soft tunic syndrome in the edible ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi (Drasche), in aquaculture.
Attempts were made to isolate virus from affected ascidians taking into account temperature conditions in which soft tunic syndrome is most prevalent in the field, but no viruses were isolated from diseased or non-diseased specimens using chinook salmon embryo, flounder fin, or epithelioma papillosum cyprini cell lines. Expand