Encoding specificity revisited: the role of semantics.

  title={Encoding specificity revisited: the role of semantics.},
  author={Brenda Hannon and Fergus I. M. Craik},
  journal={Canadian journal of experimental psychology = Revue canadienne de psychologie experimentale},
  volume={55 3},
  • B. Hannon, F. Craik
  • Published 2001
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Canadian journal of experimental psychology = Revue canadienne de psychologie experimentale
Three experiments examined the effects of semantic characteristics of word pairs on memory using the encoding specificity paradigm. The paradigm involved four phases: (a) an encoding phase to relate cues and targets, (b) a phase in which words were generated to new cues, (c) a phase for recognition of generated targets, and (d) a cued-recall phase using the original encoding cues. Encoding pairs were classified a priori as either semantically similar (e.g., alluring-PRETTY), semantically… Expand

Tables and Topics from this paper

Expert Knowledge, Distinctiveness, and Levels of Processing in Language Learning.
The foreign language vocabulary learning research literature often attributes strong mnemonic potency to the cognitive processing of meaning when learning words. Routinely cited as support for thisExpand
Prospective memory: The relative effects of encoding, retrieval, and the match between encoding and retrieval
A laboratory-based paradigm was developed that allowed us to manipulate different characteristics of encoding, retrieval, and the match between encoding and retrieval simultaneously in a single experiment and showed that all three factors have an influence on prospective memory performance, but that the match around encoding has a significantly larger influence than either encoding or retrieval factors. Expand
Evidence of Encoding Specificity for the Effects of Synopses on the Recognition of Believable and Unbelievable News Headlines
The results of experiments provide some support for encoding specificity in the realm of media headlines by demonstrating encoding specificity for believable and unbelievable headlines. Expand
Differential-associative processing or example elaboration: Which strategy is best for learning the definitions of related and unrelated concepts?
  • B. Hannon
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • International journal of educational research
  • 2012
This study showed that a new comparative elaboration strategy, called differential-associative processing, was better for learning definitions of related concepts than was an integrative elaborative strategy,called example elaboration. Expand
Prior experience supports new learning of relations in aging.
Age-related deficits in learning relations among items may be remediated using existing relational information within semantic memory as an analog for new learning in transverse patterning. Expand
Levels of processing, transfer-appropriate processing, and the concept of robust encoding
The theoretical status of levels of processing and its relation to the general principle of transfer-appropriate processing is discussed and a modified version of robust encoding is suggested as a possibility. Expand
An experimental evaluation of the effects of using training sentences to aide young children's word recall
Using a task that is similar to real-world early reading of environmental print, this study explored how two encoding conditions impacted young children's ability to remember names associated withExpand
Differential-associative Processing: A New Strategy for Learning Highly-similar Concepts
SUMMARY For many students concepts like fluid and crystallized intelligence are difficult to learn because they have highly-similar definitions that are easy to confuse. The challenge of learningExpand
Modulation of brain magnetic activity by different verbal learning strategies
The results suggest that different brain circuits are engaged to support learning of new verbal information as a function of the level and type of initial processing applied to the stimuli. Expand
Producing gestures establishes a motor context for procedural learning tasks
It is concluded that congruency with regard to the availability of motor information during the learning and the testing phase is an important determinant for successful procedural learning. Expand


Depth of processing and the retention of words
SUMMARY Ten experiments were designed to explore the levels of processing framework for human memory research proposed by Craik and Lockhart (1972). The basic notions are that the episodic memoryExpand
Encoding specificity: Relation between recall superiority and recognition failure.
The results of four experiments show that (a) recall superiority over recognition is reversed by the use of unrelated word pairs in the study list, and (b) the reversal of recall superiority leavesExpand
Remembering operations
Results show that a considerable amount of information regarding surface features is stored for many minutes and that ease of initial encoding is inversely related to likelihood of subsequent recognition: sentences in the unfamiliar typography were remembered better. Expand
Encoding specificity and retrieval processes in episodic memory.
This paper describes and evaluates explanations offered by these theories to account for the effect of extralist cuing, facilitation of recall of list items by nonlist items. Expand
The Generation Effect: Delineation of a Phenomenon
Five experiments are reported comparing memory for words that were generated by the subjects themselves with the same words when they were simply presented to be read. In all cases, performance inExpand
The effects of perceptual interference at encoding on implicit memory, explicit memory, and memory for source.
  • N. Mulligan
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
  • 1996
Although perceptual interference enhanced old-new recognition memory, it did not enhance rhyme recognition or source discriminability and an account based on compensatory processing of higher level perceptual representations remains viable and is discussed in terms of the transfer-appropriate processing framework and the item-specific-relational distinction. Expand
Degree of causal relatedness and memory
Abstract J. M. Keenan, S. D. Baillet, and P. Brown ((1984) Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior , 23 , 115–126) varied the causal relation between two sentences in passages read by theirExpand
The similarity and diversity of semantic relations
Subjects’ perceptions of similarities among relations were studied for a wider variety of relations than had been used in previous studies, and relations were viewed not as unanalyzable primitives, but in terms of the relational properties that distinguished them. Expand
The effect of encoding task on memory for sentence pairs varying in causal relatedness
Abstract Subjects read pairs of sentences varying in degree of causal relatedness and then recalled one sentence of each pair given the other as cue. When subjects read for comprehension, recall wasExpand
Encoding specificity: retrieval asymmetry in the recognition failure paradigm.
Retrieval asymmetry and recognition failure are reliably related even when adjusted for the level of recognition probability, which has previously been shown by Tulving and Wiseman to be a good predictor of recognition failure. Expand