Encoding specificity and retrieval processes in episodic memory.

  title={Encoding specificity and retrieval processes in episodic memory.},
  author={E. Tulving and D. Thomson},
  journal={Psychological Review},
Recent changes in prctheorclical orientation toward problems of human memory have brought with them a concern with retrieval processes, and a number of early versions of theories of retrieval have been constructed. This paper describes and evaluates explanations offered by these theories to account for the effect of extralist cuing, facilitation of recall of list items by nonlist items. Experiments designed to test the currently most popular theory of retrieval, the generation-recognition… Expand
Influences of the encoding instructions on retrieval processes in recall and recognition memory
The results showed that subjects performed at the greatest level when the encoding instruction and the retrieval test were compatible, and that cued recall performance was similar to recognition performance regardless of intralist similarity. Expand
Levels of Processing and Retrieval: Recency Effects after Incidental Learning in a Reaction Time Task
In their development of the levels-of-processing approach to memory Craik and Jacoby (1975) proposed a dual-process theory of retrieval which involves both the scanning of recent episodic memory andExpand
An Asymmetry Between Memory Encoding and Retrieval
A reversed dissociation is demonstrated, in which the same variable produced opposite effects when implemented at encoding and retrieval, as compared with reading intact words. Expand
Recognition failure of recallable words in semantic memory
In an experiment in which there was no study phase, 54 subjects were tested for recognition of famous surnames and then were tested for cued recall of the same surnames. Subjects failed to recognizeExpand
Discrimination problems in context-dependent memory
The memory as discrimination view investigated as part of this thesis suggests that factors such as cue-overload, distinctiveness, context, and potentially others contribute to a process of memory retrieval where diagnosticity is central. Expand
Retrieval processing and episodic memory
It is concluded that few studies have used designs that permit these different kinds of process to be independently identified, and that presently there is little evidence to indicate which kinds of processing can be fractionated in terms of their neural correlates. Expand
Electrophysiological evidence for strategically orienting retrieval toward the specific age of a memory
Novel evidence is provided that knowledge about when a memory was initially encoded leads to differences in the adoption of retrieval processing strategies, and this work is the first to address this issue by instructing participants to retrieve words that were encoded either one week or about 30 minutes earlier. Expand
Episodic inhibition.
A broad range of other findings can be explained by the concept of "episodic inhibition," which proposes that episodic memories retain copies of semantic knowledge structures that preserve patterns of activation/inhibition originally generated in those structures during encoding. Expand
Encoding specificity manipulations do affect retrieval from memory.
It is concluded that encoding specificity manipulations do affect retrieval from memory because in Higham's framework forced-report performance provides a measure of retrieval that is uncontaminated by monitoring and report bias. Expand
Recognition memory: A review of the critical findings and an integrated theory for relating them
  • K. Malmberg
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • Cognitive Psychology
  • 2008
The findings that are critical for testing the findings, including behavioral and brain imaging results of single-item recognition, plurality discrimination, and associative recognition experiments under a variety of testing conditions are reviewed. Expand


Triplets of verbal items were followed by tests for recognition of one of the items, the other two items (context) being intact, permuted, removed from display, or replaced by new items. RecognitionExpand
Associative encoding and retrieval: Weak and strong cues.
Data from three experiments are reported in support of the encoding specificity hypothesis of retrieval: the effectiveness of retrieval cues depends upon the specific, format o f encoding of theExpand
Role of encoding unitization in cued recognition memory
A cueing effect, defined as the facilitation of recognition of a to-be-remembered (TBR) word by the reinstatement of an item which accompanied it at encoding, was found in two studies after learningExpand
Encoding processes in recognition and recall
The present experiments demonstrate that picture-word stimuli are differentially encoded in anticipation of a recognition test than in anticipation of a free-recall test. Subjects perform better onExpand
Search and retrieval processes in long-term memory
A theory of human memory is described in which a distinction is made between three memory stores: the sensory register, the short-term store, and the long- term store, a store which is considered to be a permanent repository for information. Expand
Hierarchical retrieval schemes in recall of categorized word lists
These experiments investigate the effects of hierarchic organization of word-lists upon their free recall. Ss recalled nested category lists presented either randomly or in a hierarchically organizedExpand
Availability versus accessibility of information in memory for words
The S s learned, on a single trial, lists of words belonging to explicitly designated conceptual categories. Lists varied in terms of length (12, 24, and 48 words) and number of words per categoryExpand
Implications of short-term memory for a general theory of memory
Abstract : A dichotomy of human memory into immediate memory and long-term memory (associative memory, habit) has been widely accepted for many years and has been formally stated by some theorists.Expand
Organization and Memory
Publisher Summary This chapter illustrates three general principles associated with organization and memory. First, memory and organization are not only correlated, but organization is a necessaryExpand
A critique of two popular "strength" theories, one which relates recall and recognition to the strength of one and the same memory trace, and another which relates only recognition memory to a similar strength measure are offered. Expand