Empty seeds reduce seed predation by birds in Juniperus osteosperma

@article{Fuentes2004EmptySR,
  title={Empty seeds reduce seed predation by birds in Juniperus osteosperma},
  author={M. Fuentes and E. Schupp},
  journal={Evolutionary Ecology},
  year={2004},
  volume={12},
  pages={823-827}
}
Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) is one of many plant species that produce large numbers of fruits containing parthenocarpic or otherwise empty or inviable seeds. We tested the hypothesis that production of empty fruits in this species results in reduced levels of predation on fertile seeds. In a population in west-central Utah, we estimated the proportion of fruits with filled seeds in trees suffering high levels of fruit destruction by the seed-eating bird Parus inornatus and in… Expand

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